Amber can be called one of the most common and popular diverse stones in the world – in our territories, it is at all well recognized and in demand. However, most people know quite a little about it, because it is worth meeting this material closer.
Amber is a petrified resin coniferous trees, which lasted in the land of tens of millions of years. Arguing about his meaning for a person, the majority of people would say that this is a beautiful diverse material, but in some regions of its mass production, local residents do not consider this resource with something particularly valuable and sometimes even use it instead of rosin for soldering. However, in Russia, Yantar is often called “Gold Baltic” – this poetic term describes both the substance looks like and how those who have not come across it in everyday life.
This stone is in good 70% of carbon, the rest of the mass is about equal proportions falls on hydrogen and oxygen. Since in the original this substance has organic origin, its formula is, of course, more complicated – the composition also includes sulfur, nitrogen and ash.
If you describe the appearance of amber, you need to mention that Crystals This substance does not forms – it relates to frameless polymers. Its color can fluctuate in the range available for conventional fresh coniferous resin – most often it is shades from yellowish to brown through reddish tones. At the same time, there are also specific stones of colorless, milk or slightly greenish tone. The transparency of homogeneity does not differ – it happens both practically transparent amber and the one that the light does not miss almost quite. For all pebbles is characteristic Specific resin shine.
The density of amber is most often within 1.05-1.09 grams per cubic centimeter, but sometimes this indicator reaches 1.3 grams to the same volume. This stone does not differ in particular hardness: Let him not take him with bare hands, he is amenable to polishing without any problems. Friction contributes to the pebbles, acquiring a negative charge.
Under the room temperature, the amber is a solid, but when the temperature is reached at 150 degrees, it starts gradually soften. The melting point of the substance is not exactly determined and is about 280-320 degrees. Any type of this stone easily flammifies.
The variety and uncertainty of many characteristics of amber are caused by the fact that it changes under the action of external forces. First of all, it is oxidized in the open air, entering into the reaction with oxygen, which becomes fragile, can change the color and chemical composition. In addition, the initial data may also change – the properties of the stone depend on what tree was resin and how long it was kept in the ground.
History of origin
The origin of amber for a long time was sheepdown by legends, because they will infrequently meet the stone that does not give crystals burning on fire and melting near him. Etymology of the name of such a substance in different languages mean a lot about where in a particular country has become aware of Yantar and what local people thought about him.
Thus, in modern Romanesque and many German languages, Amber was gained by Amber, built to the ancient Arab consonant word – from here we conclude that in the Middle East this substance was known since ancient. Nowadays, there is a solid sandy desert and difficult to believe that coniferous forests could grow here. Did not believe in such an option and the Arabs themselves – they guessed that the liquid was frozen in front of them, but they considered a stone dew, and not a coniferous resin.
German-speaking nations, which in the Middle Ages belonged almost the entire Baltic States, most admired the fact that the amber is able to burn, and also highlighting a characteristic fragrance. Thille thinking, they called him “Bernstein”, which can be considered a reduction from the German phrase “combustible stone”. Today, the derivative of the “Burstyn” is called Amber Poles, Ukrainians and Belarusians.
In Greece, Yantar was called an electron in honor of the elegra star, located in the Constellation of Taurus. Even in the ancient times, local residents noticed the ability of the stone to electrification when rubbed – actually, the modern word “electricity” just from the name of this substance and happened.
In ancient Russia, where the official language had many borrowings from Greek due to the general religion, Amber was called “Ilektra”, sometimes “IHTRD”. For a less educated majority that does not own Greek, such a name was too complicated, because some scientists believe that the legendary Alatyr-stone, he is “Bel-Gulching Stone” – it is amber.
As for the modern Russian name, his etymology is being built to the Lithuanian word Gintaras, for the first time “Eventar” was mentioned in a written source in 1551. Many Slavic languages borrowed the same word from Lithuanian through Russian.
What is interesting, and the ancient Greek, and the Lithuanian name of the stone is erected to the local form of the word “to protect”, because magical properties were attributed to the unusual substance, allowing it to use it as an amulet.
Modern poetic names like the “gift of the Sun” or “Sea of Sea” once again indicate that in any country and in any Epoch Amber was perceived as something completely unusual, but always with a positive subtext.
If you apply not to legends, but to history, it turns out that for the manufacture of various products this stone is used for several thousand years. In the same Baltic from Amber, rings, buttons and many other useful things did during the time of Neolithic. What is interesting, the Crown of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh of Tutankhamon, whose age almost reaches 3.5 thousand years, decorated, besides other jewels, amber – a scientist believed that he was brought from the shores of the Baltic Sea. Already in those days in the Mediterranean region, a full trade of this unusual stone was established.
On the eastern and southern coast of the Baltic Sea, the processing of amber, several millennia, was a popular folk fishery, while in the XIII century, the Teutonic Order who reigned here did not decide that it was too valuable raw materials in order to let them trade them all. Since then, the processing of such stones has become a state of state, special fortresses were engaged in the collection, and processing at home was banned – all the raw materials were purposefully exported to other cities. The exclusive right of trafficking in such a product was necessary to receive from the state, because the folk crafts for a long time they dug.
Place of Birth
At the dawn of civilization, the main European source of amber was a field on the territory of the current Denmark, but it has exhausted in ancient times. Already in the Ancient Roman period, an amber shore in the Baltic States, located today on the territory of the Kaliningrad region of Russia, as well as in neighboring Lithuania and Latvia, could already be considered the main region of mining gems. It is believed that today it is here that it is concentrated to 90% of all the deposits of this stone, there is a one-of-a-kind amber plant engaged in the mining of such gems.
In Ukrainian Woodland Amber, too, quite a lot. Local Rovno amber is also known pretty wide. The local deposits include the Baltic-Dneprovskiy subprint of the Eurasian Amber Province, so that the “Gifts of the Sun” here is the echoes of the neighboring Baltic States.
If we talk about the rest of Eurasia, then there is a relatively small amber. In Europe, limited reserves of such raw materials are found in the Carpathian mountains and in Sicily, in Asia – in the north of Siberia, in the Far East and Burma.
In addition, some of these gems can be mined in North America. Today, the main deposits of amber in the Western Hemisphere are located on the territory of the Dominican Republic and Mexico, in addition, episodic findings of such stones are known in the north of Canada and the United States, as well as in Greenland.
Among other things, antique authors have repeatedly mentioned that earlier the extraction of amber was possible even in India and Africa. Nowadays, in these regions (as in the same Mexico), a digger was mined – another variety of petrified resin, which most scientists call for amber not to be confused. However, another group of specialists proposes to include these regions in the number of amateurous provinces due to the general similarity of stones.
Colors and varieties
The widespread view that amber is purely yellow shades, in the root incorrect – modern specialists allocate as many as four hundred different colors. Yellow and orange species are simply spread noticeably more, that’s why these are all these poetic epithets about “Sun Gifts”.
It should be understood that Relatively high prevalence reduces the demand for such pebbles – the gem of any atypical shade is valued more. At the same time, it would be stupid to evaluate a piece of amber purely in its color – the cost is determined in size, both by the processing skills, and, in particular, by the presence of inclusions.
The classic Baltic Amber, as accustomed to thinking most of our fellow citizens, reminds the wax, and for transparency, the subtle sheets of this substance are also not lagging behind. At the same time, yellow gems of any tone, including a red tint, also included in the list of classic options.
This stone is also emphasized in red and even cherry blossom, and this is already a claim for originality. Such a beautiful shade caused by the fact that the ordinary prehistoric resin due to forest fires apparently passed through the calcination procedure. Externally, such a nugget resembles Rubin, therefore appreciated all the epochs. Poetic Chinese and the Japanese called him “blood dragon”, only higher government ranks could afford such decoration of large-scale.
The top three of the most popular colors includes a dairy-white amber, but it is interesting that in itself the substance from which it consists, white does not happen. This color is only a visual effect, simply in the thicker of the yellowish shade, there are plenty of air and water bubbles, which give the stone whitish color.
Even less often there are such unusual shades of amber as green and blue. The first of these options also arises purely due to the impressions, this time – particles of plants, or even soil. With blue gems, the confusion is the biggest – scientists still can not explain to the other, where such a shade came from, and they offer non-communal theories about optical deception.
It should be noted that pebbles are far from always turning out to be monophonic – pure tone with high transparency in general is a huge rare. But a significant part of amber has certain clouds in its thicker.
In some samples, these cloues are found only outside, since there is practically no transparency – such an instance is called landscape. It does not always look like a truly beautiful, but sometimes it is properly a polished bead healthy reminds some of the planets of the solar system.
If you want to find a truly exclusive sample, focus on amber, in which a kind of prehistoric insect froze. It is quite difficult to get a similar copy, because it is a big rarity, and scientists, museums and the strengths of this world are hunting.
Like any other material, known since ancient times and considered expensive, Amber Oweyan is a lot of legends. Due to this, magical and healing properties were attributed to him in different epochs. Some of them were confirmed, others remained unproved, but only the owner of the stone decides, what to believe, and what is not.
Amber is often associated with the Sun, and the heavenly luminais itself is considered to be a symbol of happiness, joy and fun. A priori solar stone is suitable in order to be a faith – at different times, health promotion has been attributed to him, and protection against enemies. It is believed that such an amulet suits people, inclined to decide in the heart, and not mind, because he will not prevent representatives of creative professions and simply optimists. In addition, the stone contributes to luck in all respects, increases intuitive abilities, and also provides the owner’s dwelling. According to esoteric specialists, there is a whole list of positive properties inherent in amber.
- Soothes and warms, literally penetrating into the soul+
- Constantly stored somewhere in the box, protects the dwelling from criminals and natural disasters+
- Helps future mothers to give birth without complications, and those who have already acquired a baby, ensures the health of the baby+
- guarantees a good mood if you constantly wear it on yourself, while a large piece is enough just to squeeze in your hand to get a powerful positive charge+
- contributes to the preservation of female youth+
- Badges bad thoughts and night thoughts, if you put it in advance under the pillow – the truth, for this purpose it is suitable exclusively in the untreated form+
- cleans and clarifies both body and soul+
- Helps your owner to survive any, even the hardest grief.
In ancient times it was assumed that the healing properties of amber are universal, then you will be useful in any situation in any sideways. Vintage healers found a lot of benefit in the use of this stone, without thinking about how he treats, but I sincerely believing that no illness before the influence of such a drug.
By the way, some useful properties of this substance today have been proven, and folk medicine all this time continued to use it, without needing in any evidence.
- It is believed that the constant wearing of an amber bracelet helps the acceleration of metabolism and promotes the purification of the body from all over. According to this logic, such an accessory is accurately useful to a person who supports himself in shape, or seeking to lose weight.
- Amber Acid is sold in modern pharmacies. This is a biostimulator of natural origin, which is able to compete with popular energy in efficiency, the dangers of which have already been written quite a few. A similar drug is sometimes recommended to eat people engaged in intense mental labor.
- Small Amber Crumb is used by many pharmaceutical companies in the process of drug production. For example, tincture on such an unusual ingredient is considered to be very effective in combating various pulmonary diseases and colds.
- Smoke that stands out in the process of amber combustion, contains all the same useful substances as the tincture described above. For this reason, amber inhalations, if you find pebbles and do not regret it, they can also be useful.
It is noted that their use can be productive in the treatment of asthma or chronic cough.
Amber is greatly popular among women as a beautiful and stylish decoration, especially since for many men it is not a big problem to buy it – to real gems this gem, also not much cheaper, does not significantly reach. At the same time, the representatives of weak sex often fond of astrology and seek to select decorations in accordance with the rules of this science. Then they should know that “Sunny stone” is best suited for the signs of the zodiac, whose element is the fire is Aries, Leo and Sagittarius.
As this stone – in any case, the positive, the same esoteric experts note the possibility of its wearing for representatives of absolutely any zodiac sign. For some reason, it is offended by the favor of “Gold Baltic” only the Taurus – he is not that it is forbidden to wear amber jewelry, just an esoteric effect will rush to zero. If for active representatives of fiery signs this stone can be an excellent additional stimulator, then for earth signs, his wearing can pour into further aggravation of indifference.
Air and watermarks can wear such a decoration for both beauty and a certain treatment effect.
There is a point of view that amber independently “chooses” owner itself – if suddenly this gem does not fit you, you yourself feel it.
How to distinguish from fake?
This amber is not enough for everyone, because today, as in the case of many other stones, there is an artificial amber. Externally, it really looks like, and the sellers are not always in a hurry to inform the buyer that in front of him fake, and require as much as the plastic as a natural stone. Naturally, there is no special properties of a modern trinket, therefore you need to know the differences of amber with any other materials so as not to become a victim of fraudsters.
- Inspection of air bubbles in prehistoric resin – the phenomenon is normal, but they, as a rule, should not be much. In the industrial production of an inexpensive artificial amber, manufacturers usually do not care about the purchase of an expensive hermetic stirrer with air suction function, because there will be particularly many such bubbles in the fake.
- Ideally even tone of amber beads – a clear sign of product falsification. At a minimum, nature should not have been thinking so much, because the amber is not a living being and does not need to disguise from someone. Therefore, most pieces of this stone, also not deprived of extraneous impurities, have a characteristic smoke. For the manufacturer of a cheap product Drawing complex and unique patterns – the task is unnecessary, and this can contribute to the catch of a fraudster.
- Amber has organic origin and has an amazing property to keep warm. He’s cold, unlike plastic, never happens – on that he and sunny stone. Contrary to the fact that this substance is relatively mild, scratching his nail will not work. If you accidentally “spoiled” the seller, trying to rack his nail and leaving a well-noticeable scratch, then there can be no speech about naturalness.
- The real natural stone weighs surprisingly a little, because even massive beads in the view will be surprisingly light. With plastic, and even more so with glass difference will be very obvious – they will be much harder and will deliver certain discomfort when wearing. To distinguish the original from the fake on this criterion, preliminary experience of wearing a verified amber is desirable – then you definitely do not make sure that you are offered.
- Despite the fact that the gem broke in the land of tens of millions of years, in fact he remains all the same coniferous resin, which was initially.
Being polished, healthy lighted and napping stupid smells, he may not have his own fragrance, but it is only at first glance. You just need to lose a little amber product in your hands, and if it has a natural origin, you will definitely feel the characteristic smell.
Most often amber applied in jewelry and for the manufacture of souvenirs. In the latter case, it can be consolidated both untreated and extruded or melted gift. Masters of processing make real wonders from amber – figurines, paintings, icons and much more.
In industry, this stone has found special use in such industries as pharmaceuticals, perfumes, the food industry, as well as for the production of sandpaper and some varnishes – for example, they are covered with famous Stradivari violins. In the old days, amber could be used as an electrical insulator.
You can add other use in medicine to already mentioned therapeutic properties. In the ancient Egypt, it was used for mummification, and today it makes various accessories for blood transfusion, as it protects the live flesh from destruction.
The complexity of the appeal with amber is that it, having a natural origin, has a property to grow quickly, which is more fluttered and becomes fragile. Here are some subtleties of how to extend the life to your beloved decoration:
- Amber does not like neither heat or cold, but especially suffering from sharp temperature drops+
- Perfumery and any household chemicals can harm the amber decoration, even a tiny drop of perfumes can harm the stone+
- This gem does not differ in high strength, even a relatively weak blow can split it+
- Due to the softness of the material and its dislike for detergents, it is extremely undesirable to touch the product with dirty hands, a special danger is fat for amber+
- “Sunny stone” strangely cannot be stored under sunlight – for this dark box is better fit, but sometimes “recharge” it is simply necessary, otherwise it will fade+
- Fresh air provokes the oxidation of the pebble surface, because of which it becomes fragile and can be covered by cracks+
- Amber, unlike many other stones, never stored in the bags – the fabric is not able to protect the nugget from impact and splitting+
- According to the above reason, amber products never stored together, for everyone choose a separate box+
- Best cleaning technique – regular wiping with dry soft flannel or woolen cloth after each labeling decoration+
- If you wash amber, then only in cold or slightly warm water, supplements are allowed only that the ammonia alcohol, but the use of soap is prohibited+
- Ideally, pebbles are clean with special means, but if they are not, it is possible to soak it in the salted aqueous solution+
- After washing, the product necessarily wipes dry and polished with the addition of olive oil.
The most expensive decorations should not wither humble – they only turn them with wet wipes.
For the properties of amber, see the following video.