Ruby – King of Gems and Lord of Magic, Stone of Welfare and Power. The symbol of love, beauty, strength and royalness, health and life – this is the mineral of mystics and wizards with powerful strength and not tolerant.
Rubin – leader in nomenclatures of particularly valuable stones. This is the mineral of exceptional qualities:
In a possible spectrum of characteristic paintings – fiery color of raspberry, red with brownish, yellowish or pinkish shades. The most valuable gem with blue or purple shades, which is called the color of “pigeon blood”.
Known and the so-called “star” rubies (sapphires), which can be almost any colors. The impressive six-star star, usually located in the central part of the processed gem, looks unusual and fascinates.
Color and properties of rubies are determined by the natural conditions of the occurrence and depend on their place of birth.
Rubins classification is carried out by shades of red:
- Intense, bright+
Due to its natural properties of Rubin – the gem is expensive, its separate specimens reach prices of several tens of thousands of dollars. The most valuable ruby weighing 8.62 karat is located in the ring from Bulgari, acquired for 3.6 million £ London jeweler l. Graff. Truly legendary called Ruby “Black Prince” Weight 170 Carat. For the first time, it is mentioned in the XIV century as the decoration of the British royal court.
Mineral is a variety of corundum with a chemical formula AI2O3. The difference in color is determined exclusively impurities of chromium compounds. In their hardness, Corundum is inferior only to diamonds (9 on the MOO scale). When lighting, an amazing shine is emitted and wuses wither. In jewelry subjects, clean, transparent minerals are more often used.
Less often handled rubies of an opaque type with asterism (impurities form rays) or one-headed (“cat eye”).
Minerals distinguish in hemology:
At the same time, the second, being the full analogues of natural stones, are grown in special devices. Artificial mineral is, as a rule, imitation of a natural mineral with a different chemical composition and physical properties, a kind of similarity, which looks like a stone, given by nature.
Coloring of natural and synthetic gems is determined by the number of chromium ions. Without him the stone would be a colorless corundum. Irony additives give the mineral brightness.
They are identical and physical properties. Synthetic ruby, as well as natural fellow, leaves scratches on topaz, quartz, which is typical of only diamond.
The mineral is grown both crystals and “bleb” (cylinders with a pointed end). The synthetic product has high quality, however, it often may contain bubbles and inclusions. Gemology experts distinguish the synthetics from the natural mineral using a special device, watching bent growth lines. Natural stone growth line straight. In nature, Ruby has a different origin, but more often found in placers.
In fact, the synthetic (hydrothermal) mineral is the same ruby that is formed in laboratories in high temperatures. Growing technology worked so much that it is difficult to distinguish from natural stones, but they cost much cheaper. The main feature of synthetic minerals is their impeccability. “Baking” minerals in laboratory installations at elevated temperatures produced from a mixture of chromium, iron and corundum, contributes to their inadequate formation.
Natural stones growing far from ideal conditions, as a rule, have certain flaws.
Despite the identity, synthetic minerals (nanorubines) are easier and limited. They are more convenient in processing, since they have a more correct and uniform structure, which contributes to the formation of bright and shiny faces.
How to get synthetic ruby?
For the first time Ruby managed to get M. Gudena back in 1837. In about the same time, the renovation of Rubins (Siamese) was received in the form of fused pieces of natural crystals up to 10 carats. And although such products, strictly speaking, were not synthetics, the interest in the market was somewhat decreased.
The first synthetic minerals were grown by the Frenchman. Verpel in 1982 by the synthesis of crystalline corundum from aluminum oxide. The method immediately put on an industrial basis and soon production covered all Europe and other continents. The real perspective appeared similarly to synthesize other minerals.
Of the modern ways to obtain high-quality synthetic stones are known several.
- Verpel method. Aluminum powder trioxide mixed with chrome. Then the mixture in small parts melted on the burner. Next on the lining from ceramics form cylindrical single crystals (bully) with a diameter 2 and up to 30 cm long.
- The Czokralsky method – Production of high quality mineral. Single crystals are obtained by smoothly pulling crystals upwards from the surface of a significant amount of source melt.
- Zone melting. One of the types of crystallization, in which the starting material is stretched along the heating element in molybdenum tank. Due to this crystals are formed in parts along the slow cooling of the melt. The grown crystal is formed in the lamellar form.
- Method of garnishable smelting. Material melts and crystallizes within its same cold zones. Heating occurs with a high-frequency energy source. When cooled, columnar crystals are formed.
- Hydrothermal method of synthesis. The mineral crystallization process is carried out in solutions of low-melting compounds (lead, boron and other elements).
One of the oldest Indian legends states that Ruby was washed by demonic blood shafts, a glass with which Sunny God Suria accidentally dropped Bhakarta in the water. So on the coasts of these mysterious waters and the radiating lights of ruby stars appeared.
Minerals of different colors found in Burma, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet. Separate rubies in color are clearly similar to blood, other – on pomegranate seeds. Qualitatively the best minerals have a uniform painting and emit a mysterious glow from the center of the stone.
Ruby – the symbol of power. Strengthening the social and political ranking of the owner, the mineral helps to increase its authority. Ruby is a symbol of love that helps and stimulating the ability to empathy, sacrifice, altruism, carrying in society harmony and prosperity.
Traditionally, it gives him to people who are passionately expect reciprocity.
It is believed that he changes color with the approach of dangerous situations. This is a wonderful charm of damage, the evil eye and enemy listing. His magical qualities contribute to strengthening characteristics in man. However, the mineral “prefers” people of honest and strong. Magic power of stone use magiches and sorcerers.
The healing properties of the ruby are used for a long time. According to lithotherapists, the mineral is useful at curable:
- Diseases of the organs of the digestive tract+
- ENT disease+
- blood diseases+
The stone is able to strengthen the immune system, eliminate insomnia and depressive states, improve metabolism. The daily infusion of stone on water stimulates the processes of regeneration of the skin, cells of the body, normalizes the patient’s condition during colds, eliminates the body from toxins.
Stone is considered female because heals gynecological diseases.
Ruby symbolizes the element of fire, perfectly combined with zodiac symbols of the lion, Aries and Sagittarius. Does not combine with the signs of water elements (crayfish and fish). However, Scorpio is an exception, since the Fiery Mars is patronized above it. Should not be worn by calves and devices. For Capricors This is a neutral symbol.
Esoterics believe that Ruby Talisman protects the elemental catastrophe, can save the dwelling from fires. His wearing is conjugate with luck in work and financial activities.
The strong energy of the mineral stimulates the desire of a person to know the new and unknown, expanding the horizons of the possible. Especially the talisman is useful to people creative working in the field of intellectual labor, people of science and art.
Drawn Ruby to proper good luck and well-being in the future.
In ancient times, all the stones of the Red Color were called rubies. However, most of them came to verification or excellent spinel or grenades and tourmalines. Natural Ruby is in nature infrequent. In the trade nomenclatures of minerals, it is still often contained by the term “Ruby”, as a rule, with extensions of the type “Ceylon”, “Arizona” and other. However, the grenades, topaz, spinel or fluorite are often hidden behind these names. Such a “replacement” of items is applied to significantly increase the level of demand for relevant products.
Greatly resembles the famous Burmese rubies Red Spinel, often found on the same fields. Spinel color also define chrome impurities, but her shade is different – brick colors. A reliable difference from the Rubin is the absence of dichroism (dependence of the color from the direction of light) – Rubins have the quality pronounced. As well as by refractive index (1.72 versus 1.76 Rubin) and the quality of inclusions.
In addition, the spinel has a characteristic spectrum of the luminescence consisting of a number of bright bands with two lines of spectrum standing in its intensity. Rubine has a spectrum includes only two stripes that merge in the spectroscopes in one lane.
Errorery adopt the Ruby is easy and Almanandine, which is also different from the ruby with its refractive index (is checked using a sodium lamp). Red grenade has a specific structure of the absorption spectrum with three stripes in yellow, green and blue regions. Topaz saturated, pinkish color, often take for pale Ceylon corundum. In fact, it is a sapphire, differing from rubies by refractive factor.
What is different from natural stone?
Today, various materials are used in jewelry:
- Real minerals+
- imitation for natural stones (fake) differing from them composition and properties+
- Synthetic minerals that are practically complete analogues of the present.
You can check the mineral on authenticity in both home conditions and visually in the process of buying a stone.
- It is possible to determine the naturalness of the mineral using a glass with water, lowering the stone. If it is clearly noticeable reddish radiation, emanating from the mineral, then you are real ruby.
- In conventional lighting, the natural mineral from the sunny side has a special burgundy color, and on the other hand – the matte-pale.
- Recognize the authenticity of the mineral can be using cow milk. If you put a real mineral in a small transparent container, milk will get a pinkish hue. Natural stone intensively radiates light.
- Will help learn the true origin of the mineral ultraviolet. Synthetic copies differ from natural to the fact that when translucencing with rays, they remain red swinging, and bright orange appears in natural.
- You can distinguish a mineral from imitation in the quality of bubble inclusions. When fake, such splashes are empty, white, and in natural copies they are filled with reddish gas.
- Unlike natural, on the surface of an artificial mineral, scratches straight and glossy, and on natural – distorted, zigzag.
- Ruby is heated extremely slowly and if you attach it to the body (in the eyelid) and it will warm in a few minutes, then this is synthetic or fake.
- Swipe the glass mineral, and if the scratch remains on it, then this is a natural stone.
- Fake from alloys is considerable easier by weight of heavy synthetic mineral.
- If the cost of the crystal is extremely low, then most likely in front of you are not natural origin.
It is important to remember that synthetic ruby, especially fulfilled in the Geneva technique, very good. But the real, natural jewel will not replace.
More about artificial rubies you will learn from the following video.