Diamond has long become a standard of strength, disadvantages and stability. However, it is useful to know how diamonds are formed.
Not so few people at least once in their lives kept decorations with diamonds. But about the origin of the reference gems, the situation is much worse. Even experienced mineralogues and geologists cannot say with complete confidence, what version corresponds to the truth.
What did you think before?
Diamonds became known long before our era. Passing past the stone with such unusual properties was impossible.
For this reason, various assumptions were created, “explained” the appearance of Adamant.
One of the vintage legends says that:
- diamond crystals are living creatures+
- They may relate to different floors+
- These organisms “absorb heavenly dew”+
- they can increase in size and even multiply.
Ancient Indian mythology argued that the diamond appears in nature when the five main natural began. These include:
In old manuscripts, they immediately began to note that the diamond is very firm and is distinguished by an extraordinary glitter. Often wrote that this mineral can appear “on a rock, in the sea and on the hills located above the gold mines”.
The legends about Sinbad-Savior say that somewhere there is a pretty deep gorge, at the bottom of which the primary deposits of diamonds are hidden. But, of course, all this very poorly correlated with reality.
Should pay tribute to people of antiquity and medieval. Finding a real reason for the formation of diamond shows that human thought never stood on the spot. Nevertheless, the first serious versions of his appearance could be nominated only after 1797 – it was then that the chemical composition of the mineral was precisely established.
A little later, it was found that the difference between diamond, graphite and various variants of coal was due to the location of atoms inside crystalline lattices.
The essence of the concept – The occurrence of these minerals as a result of the movement of magma. It is assumed that their main part appeared no earlier than 2.5 billion and no later than 100 million years ago. It happened at a depth of about 200 km. There, the graphite was accepted simultaneously a high temperature of about 1 thousand. degrees and pressure 50 thousand. atmosphere.
One version of the version implies that self-auction stones have been formed on the surface of the Earth.
This happened as a result of frozen lava when contacting air. The problem is that the temperature and pressure in such a situation is not too high. For this reason, such a concept is not popular among professionals.
There is an alternative assumption according to which gems are formed from ultrasound.
Only later, when Magma rose upstairs, and a stone was thrown with her. The vast majority of geologists leaning precisely to this approach. The intermediate version is that diamonds are formed when Magma has already started moving upwards, but has not yet reached the vent.
Supporters of this hypothesis argue that when lifting the crystal lattices should occur.
Similar changes in the structure are significantly strengthened by the stone itself and give it so appreciated in the product market.
The former stocks of diamonds associated with old deposits and kimberlite tubes are ever less. And the need for stones is great. Sometimes the inhabitants of volcanic areas after a while after the eruptions are removed from the hardening lava the most solid mineral. But the conditions required for its appearance are obtained not only due to volcanic processes, while a part of diamond researchers draws attention not only to the depths of the Earth, but also up.
“Guests from space”
Repeatedly during the examination of pieces of meteorites, whole diamonds were found (or their individual particles). The quality of such minerals was excellent.
Once, when the meteorite fell in the United States, in the walls of the crater discovered precious stones. But they differed somewhat from the usual options. The difference in some data concerns the structure of the crystal lattice – it does not affect the appearance.
Part of the specialists believe that diamonds are already inside meteorites. When they are destroyed, the stones are “free”.
The disadvantage of such a version is that unlikely the appearance of a solid form of graphite in the occurrence of “Space Cobblestones”.
A more popular representation, according to which the stone appears already when colliding with the earth’s surface. This process provokes the release of significant mechanical and thermal energy.
For this reason, the temperature and pressure in the center increases sharply (where the crater remains). These factors lead to the characteristic carbon transformation.
It is reliably known that in the Popigay asteroid crater, which appeared in 35 million years ago, there are many diamonds. True, to see them somewhere on the counter of the jewelry store will not work – these are the stones of a very small value suitable for technical use only.
Spectrographic observations showed that the carbon gaseous carbon (in its pure form or in a bunch with nitrogen, hydrogen) is present in the atmosphere of the Sun. Astronomers and cosmologists believe that this element was both in colossal bunches of gas, dust, which became precursors of all planets. When cooling the gases were liquefied. Gradually, liquid substances were distributed by mass: heavier plunged down, and the lungs flooded up.
Liquid magmatic masses in the initial period of earth development, it was easily broken through a thin layer of earthly crust. Carbon actively reacted with hydrogen. As a result, the earth Cora gradually lost this chemical element.
At the present stage of the geological history of our planet, it accounts for approximately 1%. Such an excursion allows you to make an externally paradoxical conclusion: there are no deep contradictions between volcanic and cosmic hypotheses.
The firm form of carbon, which is now added to jewelry, is used in drilling crowns, and she once attended the interstellar space.
Difference only in the ways she got into a specific place. Experts believe that the most carbon is now in the outer part of the mantle, because there is a high temperature and pressure lead to the formation of compounds of the main substance with heavy metals. But some carbon atoms join each other.
Another famous Vernadsky and Fersman put forward a suggestion that diamonds are born. Two scientists own a scheme of carbon geochemical transformation. According to this classical diagram and diamond, graphite is concentrated mainly in the lower layers of the lithosphere.
Is it so much unknown, because the most convincing theories, even confirmed by laboratory experiments, do not have more decisive confirmation.
The deepest wells on Earth get only to a depth of 10-12 km. At the same time, the birth of diamonds, even according to Fersman, occurs at depths of at least 30-40 km. Exactly the average thickness of the earth’s crust. Check the mantle version at the modern level of drilling business, all the more will fail. Returning to the mantle-magmatic version, it is worth indicating that according to it, carbon can turn into diamonds if:
- For hundreds of million years there will be a chemically uniform environment+
- At the same time, weak thermal gradients will be maintained+
- Pressure will steadily exceed 5 thousand. PA.
Relevant parameters based on the representations of modern geology are achieved at a depth of 100 to 200 km.
Another indispensable condition for “success” is the presence of DIATREM or breakthroughs of the earth’s crust. On the continental platforms, the magmatic melt saturated with noticeable amounts of gases can punch it. As a result, both kimberlite tubes are formed.
There is an alternative fluid version according to which the steady mineral is crystallized at a lesser depth. The starting point is the decay of methane or its incomplete oxidation. The oxidizer is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and sulfur. Four elements can be in liquid and in a gaseous aggregate state.
From fluid hypothesis it follows that Diamonds may appear at temperatures from 1 thousand. degrees acting simultaneously with a pressure of 100 to 500 Pascals.
It is worth noting that only about 1% of kimberlite tubes found in different parts of the world, contains industrially significant diamond deposits.
In other places, large-scale production is impractical. Over time, geological processes lead to the destruction of the upper part of the indigenous fields. Diamonds from there are carried out (and worn in the past) fluid water. With a re-deposition of the mineral appear place.
For the secret of the origin of diamonds, see the following video.