Corundum: What it is, varieties, properties and scope of application

Corundum: What it is, varieties, properties and scope of application

Corundum – precious mineral, the most famous derivatives of which are sapphire and ruby. These stones are considered not just valuable gems, but the jewels of the highest category. In mineralogy there is a group of corundum, similar to the structure, properties of the chemical and physical range. Long period of time specialists allocated varieties of corundum as separate types of natural stones.

After the chemical science and geological studies have reached a certain level, data were obtained to combine minerals in one group. All minerals differed only outwardly, and in their composition they were one. So a group of stones under the general name “Corundum”.

History of origin

History Corunda has many centuries. The incredible demand for this mineral arose immediately as only his formation was discovered. Not all the precious subspecies of corundum are common and known, But, probably, every person will be able to answer the question of how Ruby or Sapphire looks like.

But the question of the characteristics of the corundum in many will cause difficulties, despite the fact that both famous stone are formed from one mineral. Corundum has a rich color gamut and many varieties. Its cost is high, and popularity among experts is huge.

Initially, it could acquire and wear only people belonging to the religious elite: priests or priests. It began its distribution worldwide Corundum from the territory of India, he got into European countries. The demand for Corundum was formed very quickly, the stones became popular and claimed.

From the clergy, the stone moved to diplomacy, where he had acquired a symbolic importance. Gifts with Corundami Blue or Red Tint in the Spheres of Higher Diplomacy were considered manifestations of deepest respect.

In Russia, the mineral was opened in the middle of the last century. Domestic name Corunda – Yahont. Fermous Yahont – this is the name of the Rubin, and Lazorova – Sapphire. Stone was very valued in Russian nobility in all historical times.

What it is?

In different countries, Corundum is called in their own way, and Among the most spectacular items, you will meet the following:

  • East diamond+
  • Violet+
  • Padparadja+
  • Eastern Emerald+
  • Almanandine sapphire+
  • Eastern Amethyst.

    There is such a concept as “pure stone” – this means that Corundum has excellent natural properties and is highly appreciated in the market of precious stones. It is explained by the fact that finding such stones is very difficult, because in nature they are extremely few.

    Distinctive characteristics and description of pure mineral:

    • Absolute transparency+
    • Stone has no color due to lack of pigment+
    • Bright type glitter, glass+
    • Incredible similarity with diamond.

    In most deposits, Corunda find pigmented minerals that contain various inclusions of breeds, for example, colloidal type. As for coloring, the palette of shades is impressive: Blue and blue, red and scarlet, green, lilac.

    Special meaning people have long come to red corundum, since such stones are a symbol of power and power.

    Place of Birth

    Today, the deposits of sapphire corundum numbers are almost 20 times more than ruby. The most large-scale mining of crystals is conducted in Asia. The development area is a quadrangle, which includes Thailand, Myanmar, India and Sri Lanka. The most valuable rubies of the premium grade are coming from the Sri Lanka and Myanmar deposits, and elite sapphires come to the jewelry market from India.

    In addition, the corundum in Tanzania and Australia. It is there who find sapphires rare shades – Black, green. No less large deposits are located in the United States and in Canada.

    As for the European mainland, Corunds are found in Turkey, Greece, Norway. Domestic fields are located in the Urals, in Primorye and near Krasnoyarsk. One of the most recent places for the extraction of Corundov, open not so long ago, is in Kazakhstan.

    Properties

    By chemical composition, the group of corundum refers to crystalline aluminum oxides. The stone is formed only where the breed contains a large amount of alumina, while silica should be in short supply. More than half of the composition of the mineral crystal – aluminum. Formula of chemical series Al203.

    The hardness and density of pure stone is very high, it has a shade slightly gray, while the mineral translucent is excellent and the stone is completely transparent. Corunda hardness indicator is on 2 place after diamonds on the Moos scale. Density – not less than 3.94 g / cm3.

    Stones without pigment – rarity, they are distinguished by incredible beauty and have a glitter similar to the glass.

    Most often in Korunde there are natural Turning on chromium, iron, manganese and titanium. These impurities and give the final color of mineral crystals, creating the wealth of shades. Iron oxide give a shade of yellowness, and the presence gland in pure form creates Brown tone. Iron in connection with manganese gives corundum Pink Color.

    Due to the intrusion of titanium, the mineral becomes sapphire, and in the presence of chromium it turns out ruby ​​corundum. To make a pigment more juicy and saturated, wearing crystals are subjected to x-ray processing, and they become brighter. Heating mineral, on the contrary, reduces the intensity of the color. For example, a purple shade stone can become a slightly pinkish.

    Corundum possess magical and healthy properties. Thanks to the regular wearing of the stone, you can become emotionally stable and self-confident person. It greatly affects memory and increases the ability to memorize, mobilizes the activity of the mind. Therefore, it is recommended to be used during training, as well as in the process of research or inventive work.

    Stone suitable and creative people looking for inspiration.

    The influence of the stone varies depending on the type of jewelry in which it is.

    • Rings and rings. Such decorations have a positive effect on talents, hidden deep in man, on spiritual development of the person. If you constantly wear a ring with corundum on hand, then you suddenly awaken the abilities that you have not even suspected. So that the effect is the most serious and strong, knowledgeable people advise wearing a ring only on the middle finger.
    • Earrings. Perfectly affect the objective assessment of what is happening, you can more really evaluate the actions and actions. If you think about the meaning of life, wear corundum in earrings, it will help to figure out not only in this matter, but also in myself, and will also lead you to inner harmony.
    • Pendant and suspension. Something to those who need rest, equilibrium. If you are unstable in terms of emotions, restless, constantly worry, irritate, are aggressively configured – this is an ornament for you. It will help to become more focused, calm, do not suffer from emotion drops.

    It is impossible not to mention the properties of therapeutic nature, since Corundum is considered to be one of the most effective minerals. The color depends on how the action the stone will have on the body and what can help.

    With therapeutic goal, we recommend wearing a decoration with corundum or have this stone with you in the bag. Such actions will help solve a number of health problems: restore immunity and normal operation of the internal organs. Ruby perfectly affects metabolism, it helps to cope with diseases of vessels, hearts, blood circulation systems.

    Blue minerals Improve the work of organs of vision, Yellow beneficial effect on external health: skin, hair, nails, give the skin elasticity and freshness. If you want to improve the operation of the digestive organs or lose weight, then you should also use the stones of a yellow shade. Red Stones normalize blood pressure. Violet The color of the mineral will help with diseases of the nervous system, neurosis, disturbing states, neuralgias and vascular problems. In cases of stroke, brain injuries are recommended to wear a stone that is this shade.

    Those who want to improve the overall tone of the body, you need to wear jewelry in which a variety of shades of stones are combined.

    Varieties

    The most valuable varieties of the mineral – sapphire and ruby, they have the highest category among jewels. Despite similar composition and properties, stones differ in each other.

    Ruby has the following characteristics:

    • has a red color of different shades+
    • The palette varies from a juicy cherry and a dark red tree to weak, barely catchy tones of pink+
    • Saturated tones are valued above (scarlet, cherry, burgundy, dark red)+
    • Stones I categories at their price often exceed the cost of diamond+
    • High degree of transparency.

      Corundum Ruby has several subspecies that possess different characteristics.

      • Star. Rare crystal, looks pretty exotic due to the optical visual effect. If you look at the cut, you can see the outlines in the shape of a star.
      • Ceylon. Very beautiful stone bright violet shade, casting lilac.
      • Siamese. The variety of shades varies from brown and red to purple, at the same time the minerals look expressively and beautiful.

      The following features are characterized for sapphire:

      • Unique transparency+
      • The highest category among jewels+
      • Tint palette includes tones from pale blue to bright, catching cornflower shade+
      • Saturation of shades Average, but the color itself is quite deep.

          Corundum sapphires have several varieties.

          • Violet. This species is also called the Eastern Amethyst, it has an attractive juicy purple color.
          • Chlorosapphyr. The most valuable spectrum of sapphires stone having a greenish tone. This mineral is very similar to the emerald, and only a specialist can distinguish them. Other Chlorosapfira name – Eastern Emerald.
          • Padparadja. It features bright tones of orange, yellow, pink color both light and dark spectrum of shades. On transparency all stones can be completely different.
          • Leukosapphyr. The characteristics of its transparency are flawless, this particular type is called the eastern diamond.
          • Star. A rare variety, has similar features and effects with ruby ​​of the same name. Stone of incredible purity and transparency, very expensive and highly appreciated at collectors.

          Pure Corundum has no pigment, that is, in fact it is white or with a grayish tinge, which is very rarely found.

          Where applies?

          The use of precious corundum applies not only to jewelry. Opaque grainy stone used in abrasive industry. It makes powders of polishing type, grinding tools, abrasive objects.

          Due to the resistance to high temperatures, Corundum is successfully used in Production of medical products, radio electronics. In addition, Corundum is used in the manufacture of materials with thermal insulation properties. Another destination where the properties of Corundand are often applied – Aviation industry. It is Corundum that is used in the manufacture of high-end glass substitute for portholes not only aircraft, but also space missiles.

          Despite all these characteristics, the most often corundum is used in the manufacture of jewelry. Products with rubies and sapphires are in great demand.

          Who fits?

          It is believed that Corundum is a stone of people with vigorousness, activity, purposefulness and will to victory. The properties of the stone allow you to send people to the goal, mobilize their internal resources. According to astrologers, this mineral suits many signs of the zodiac.

          For example, Aquarius, Cancer and Fish can wear it without restrictions. For them, the mineral activates its best properties and allows you to attract positive energy waves that protect against negative. Corundum will especially help those who are engaged in business or creative activities, as well as those whose energy protection is too weak.

          Aries This crystal is almost at all suitable and better to avoid his wearing in young age. If you have already been 40 years old, then for you this restriction does not work. On the contrary, in the maturity of Aries can remove a lot of useful from the stone: success in personal life, career growth, awakening of talents.

          Categorically not advised to wear corundum Capricorn – From all 12 signs of the zodiac, he alone is not compatible with the energy of this mineral. If you do not consider such a nonconformity, then all the properties of the stone will start working in the opposite direction, against a person. As for the rest of the signs, they can be decorated with such a stone, but in combination with some other gem. For example, Tales Corundum will especially help in combination with turquoise, and Lerv This mineral is best to wear in combination with amber or brown sharp agate.

          Care rules

          To the stones always had a spectacular look, you need to properly care for them:

          • Periodically wipe the decoration with a cloth moistened with water alcohol with water+
          • Standing mechanical damage is quite difficult, but the density of fixing it in the frame periodically checks+
          • Store decorations in the light, especially under the right sunlight, is strictly prohibited+
          • It is impossible to overheating decorations with natural stones, as their coloring can change, becoming lighter+
          • Do not use for cleaning decorations with corundum chemicals and abrasive means – give preference to soapy aqueous solutions.

          How to distinguish natural stone from fake?

          At the end of the XIX century, the first synthetic corundum was produced, and since then, artificial minerals are grown in laboratories, which cannot be called fakes, but they have serious differences from natural gems. Laboratories for the cultivation of crystals are in Russia, Germany, Switzerland. Since the natural crystal is very expensive, Artificial Corounds are in great demand. Externally they are very similar to natural minerals, and cost cheaper.

          When buying products with natural stones you need to be extremely attentive, since there is a risk of buying fake and pay at 10, or even 100 times more than the product is actually. There are different ways to determine the origin of the mineral.

          For each natural crystal is available Quality Certificate, where is the place of its prey. If there is no certificate, and the product has fallen into your hands, bypassing the trade organization, you can independently check its quality, for example, by heating. Artificial crystals are heated so that their color becomes more juicy, but if you heat such a stone again, it will hear.

          In artificial korunde, unlike natural, air bubbles may be present. In addition, the laboratory corundum has a curvilinear type zonality, it can be seen, looking at him through a magnifying glass.

          If you are planning to make a purchase of natural corundum, Give the product to assess where a specialist will check it with a microscope or polariskop. Such an examination will help you determine the authenticity of the mineral and keeps the acquisition of fake.

          About a simple way to distinguish fake tells the following video.

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