Gold alloys: types, composition and color

Gold alloys: types, composition and color

In jewelry production, the use of precious metals in their pure form is not always appropriate, because many of them are not solid and wear-resistant. To correct the situation, they are customary to add other metals, creating alloys.

As for gold, some doctors adhere to the opinions that it possesses the healing properties, while esoterica attribute to him mystical characteristics. Be that as it may, to pure gold has long been allocated to mix different metals, as a result of which various alloys arose.

What is ligature gold?

Gold in pure form is a soft metal yellow, Its hardness can be compared with the firmness of the nail, and therefore decorations and any clean gold products are difficult to imagine in everyday life, they would be too fragile.

Ligatural gold is called an alloy of pure metal with other elements. Most often, silver, platinum, copper, cadmium and other elements are added to the gold, from which the final tint of metal and its properties are largely dependent.

Under normal conditions, gold is practically not oxidized, as a result of which scientists refer it to noble metals, and, consequently, to one of the most expensive and in demand.

What metals are added to alloys?

When adding silver to gold it becomes even softer, while the final color can be from light yellow with a shade of green to white. The more silver content in the alloy, the brighter will be the metal in the end.

Very often, copper is added to gold, which makes metal more hard and wear-resistant, but depending on its concentration, it can give gold a red shade. But it is very appreciated. Gold in a mixture with copper is often called red.

As you know, copper is capable of oxidizing, and rust may occur on it. To avoid this, silver is also added to the alloy.

The presence of zinc and cadmium, as a rule, makes gold more fragile. Such alloys are not used in jewelry.

Gold and Palladium Alloy Allows you to get white metal color, as well as save it for pupidity and basic properties.

Gold and nickel – such ligatura increases the hardness of gold and basic foundry qualities, But at the same time, the metal acquires a marked yellowish color.

The alloy of gold and platinum is obtained with a tinge of white. White color is even rich, than if the gold flashes the gold. Such ligature has high anti-corrosion properties, and therefore enjoys wide demand.

It is known that ligature Gold and Titan 4 times harder titan in pure form. This alloy is used mainly for medical purposes.

And here Alloy from gold and aluminum on external qualities is practically not distinguished from pure gold, because it has almost the same color. Detect alloy is impossible to be naked eye. Copper alloy with aluminum It is also difficult to distinguish in color from real gold. Such a alloy is called “French Gold”.

The choice of one or another additive depends on which goals are persecuted by specialists in the future, as well as from what properties should be the final product.

Scientists also obtained alloys Gold and iron, But they also have proven that they are very quickly rust, and therefore do not use wide popularity. Yes, and there is no particular need: Iron itself does not improve the properties of gold. However, in very rare cases, the alloy of the 750 sample of gold and iron can be used, which has a bluish tint, but such a color is only superficial, it is quickly erased, as well as corrosion and finds small approval from jewelers.

For a road and luxurious shade of blue to gold, steel, indium or gallium add. Depending on the metal and its proportions, the shade is obtained more or less intense.

Colors

Despite the fact that everyone is accustomed to the fact that the color of gold is yellow, there are also other shades, depending on impurities in the metal.

  • Yellow. The classic version of the decorations of gold is yellow and its shades. Usually, the 585th and 750 samples are used for this color.

  • Black. Black shade of gold can be obtained in several ways. Most often, the metal is oxidized with cobalt, they make patination or cover metal rhodium, sometimes with ruthenium.

  • White. This color of gold can be obtained by creating a variety of alloys – here and palladium, and nickel, and platinum. The latest metal is now used extremely rare, as the mixture is very refined.

  • Red. The redness of gold depends on how copper is added to it. By intensity, the shade may be pink or saturated yellow. Wide red metal popularity is reflected in the creation of wedding rings.

As for other shades, there are types of gold.

  • Blue. It is considered unique and very rare, many do not even know about the existence of such ligature.

  • Yellow-green. Such a shade is obtained if silver or cadmium is added to it. It is not recommended to carry this kind of decoration for a long time, as it is believed that they can adversely affect health due to their toxicity.

  • Purple. For a long time, creating such a shade seemed to be something impossible. But it turned out that the purple tone is easy to get if adding aluminum and palladium to gold in the right relationship. In this case, the metal will be gentle and fragile, and therefore can only be used to decorate individual parts of jewelry.

Not everyone can afford to buy an expensive golden decoration, which is why alloys-imitation use in wide demand. An example may also be a gilded decoration, which is very similar to the external characteristics. Also uses wide demand Medical alloy, which is very similar to gold, but not manufactured on it. It has chrome, magnesium, nickel.

How to make?

When creating gold alloys, much attention is paid to an increase in the strength of the final metal, as well as a decrease in the temperature of its melting. After a special temperature processing of the alloy, it is definitely reheated. Alloys are manufactured in special production under clear control of specialists at every stage.

Marking

Marking is as follows:

  • Evil – gold+
  • N – Nickel+
  • C – zinc+
  • PD – Palladium+
  • PL – Platinum+
  • CD – Cadmium+
  • Wed – silver+
  • C – Leigh+
  • M – copper.

Near these letters is the number that indicates the share of the content of a metal.

The sample is a quantitative content of gold in one or another alloy. In accordance with state standards, the following gold samples are known.

  • 375. Includes 5 metals. Most often copper is used in this alloy, but this does not mean the decoration will be completely copper, because gold in it will be about 40%.
  • 500. Most often silver or copper are used as additional components.
  • 585. 9 metals mix here. The most active gold of this sample is applied in jewelry.
  • 750. 10 elements. Gold in such a ligature is 75%, the metal is groaning, and therefore shines for a long time.
  • 958. In this alloy about 96% of pure gold, but it is rarely used because of its fragility and softness.
  • 999. Includes only one metal. Can be used to create pure gold bars.

There is also a carat system provided for gold exclusively. It is used in the USA and European countries. According to her, a pure 100% gold correspond to 24 carats.

But you should not confuse them with carats that measure gemstones.

Golden products always put a stamp with a breakdown. For markings in different countries of the world, their inscriptions and drawings are used. The stamp of Russian manufacturers looks like this: the lady in the Kokoshnik, which looks to the right, and next to it the figures of the sample, which corresponds to the metal. Stamp is placed by the State Inspectorate of Tableproof Supervision.

For more information about gold samples, see the video below.

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