Development of new sources of precious metals and modernization of specialized technologies allowed Russia to become a leader in industrial gold mining. Large natural accumulations of this metal are considered to be rare. All the more, it is necessary to take into account the exhaustion of stocks in the active operation of deposits. The main part of the extracted gold is used as a basis for the formation of the state reserve, the rest of the volume is used in jewelry and partially in industry. On an ongoing basis, further work is carried out on the development of effective production minimization methods.
Classification of deposits
Technological progress made it possible to develop the technology of modern gold mining methods using specialized equipment. The precious metal deposits are divided by the type of gold deposits in natural conditions:
primary or native+
Secondary or marching.
Indigenous fields are Fragments of volcanic magma, which was spilled over the surface of the Earth during volcanic eruptions. The content of gold in it is much larger than in the earth’s crust. Sometimes the metal is found in the form of nuggets or lived, but its main part is combined with other chemical compounds and alloys.
To get gold in Russia are mainly used Secondary (marched) type deposits. Under the influence of various natural phenomena for a long period, such as temperature changes, precipitation, groundwater, microorganisms activities, a gradual destruction of rock occurs. At the same time, gold, contained in it, will be released and exit to smooth surfaces with the formation of locations.
Classification of deposits determines the volume of metal stock.Native considered the largest and unique. The volume of gold in them in ore is from 15 to 100 tons. Gold particles in ores divide in size from 0.01 to 70 microns. Gold in places of occurrence due to their geochemical properties forms concentrations of different genetic affiliation. Exist Primary fields with a specific value of metal over 50% and complex, with gold content as a passing component.
In Russia, the prevailing stocks of this class are in carbonated carbonaceous mountain complexes and in various sedimentary strata of volcanic activity.
Invisor deposits that appeared as a result of the destruction of primary rocks were originally developed by the prospectors. The values of the gold content in them range from 100 mg / m3. Gradually, such deposits are exposed to depletion, but the share of similar placers in our country is still significant and is half of the total gold. Technogenic placers formed in the process of an incomplete cycle of waste from extracting precious metallol, they consist of a recalculated complex and residual rocks. Also are also developed by coastal marine and heterogeneous placer.
The main places of production
Indigenous gold deposits were in development since Soviet times and continue to be actively operated on an industrial scale to this day. On the territory of Russia, the main places of production are concentrated on Far East, Yakutia, Eastern Siberia, in Primorsky Krai, partly in the European part of the country and in the Urals. In the aggregate in the country, 8% of the world volume with the growth trend of this indicator. Areas of Siberia and Urals are the most promising in the fields of noble metal. Gold mining technology is mastering about 20 enterprises and deposits, which replenish the states of the state with tens of kilograms of metal annually.
Detected in the XVII century Golden Ore in the Trans-Baikal Territory Immediately attracted prospectors. Today, there are a thousand fields that give about 13 tons of precious metals in the region. This is a promising area, geological exploration showed good volumes of plastic gold, which is low-cost. In the fourth in the number of gold mined region, In the Irkutsk region, the main enterprises are located in Bodaybinsky district.
In the aggregate, they remove 23 tons of metal on the surface.
Sailing gold on Sakhalin is located on the territory of the Langheri node. Dragmetal has been produced here from 1933 by hydraulically. Ensure occurs every year, which allows to ensure stable production of mining enterprises. Recently, in the north of the islands, promising areas were discovered for mining. They can be developed without creating complex industries.
In the title of Altai, there was a reflection of the ancient name of gold. Metal for the royal treasury was paid exactly there. After the revolution there were fragmentary development of government, but only from the beginning of the 2000s in Altai Territory The industrial mining of ore began, opened Rudniks in the Zmeinogorsk and Zarechensky districts, in the Rubtsovsky district Modern production was created, the development of a large Korbolichinsky deposit was planned.
With high removal, observing environmental requirements, the maximum possible use of stocks.
One of the world’s largest gold deposits – Olympiadinsky is located in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. His uniqueness lies in the raw material base, today 500 tons of gold is extracted from its subsoil. IN Novosibirsk region A large amount of gold is mined on the famous Egorievsky field. For about him, additional gold-bearing plots are found, the right to develop which is set to auction.
Reserves of the Bayragulovskoe deposit located in the Chelyabinsk region, About 1.7 tons are estimated. It is developing Miasszoloto, whose fraction of processing is about 60% of the axle metal in the region. This Ural region gives annually to 7 tons of precious metallol, which is achieved by the cumulative mining of the largest deposits:
IN Sverdlovsk region Since ancient times, gold nuggets found, this region is customary to call the key that opened the road to further developments in Siberia and the Far East. It is produced annually to 11 tons of gold every year. The most famous places of gold mining are on the Berezovsky and Kochkarsky field.
A couple of centuries ago, the mooring of medium and large gold, as well as the nuggets found In the floodplains of the rivers of the Bzics, Lipovaya and Hamshinka in the Krasnodar Territory. Large-scale terrace paint is located on Khajoha Polyana. Now the work on gold is held On the quarries of the Laba River, Removing gold in the area is up to 20 kg per year.
The prey of the precious metallol in the Leningrad region is recognized as unprofitable on an industrial scale due to the scarcity of the location of golden veins. Although express work is held on site.
Removing gold is currently conducted by truate artels.
Where is the most gold?
Berezovskoye gold deposit in the Urals is considered the largest in Russia. His story begins with the middle of the XVIII century. The precious metallon in this section is concentrated with thin and medium-sized enclosures inside the breed, where the most gold is. In addition, the upper layers are rich in nudged. A large in size of the ore field turned over time to the main Russian field, from which 125 tons of yellow metal were extracted.
A closed method of mining increases the cost of gold.
The districts of the Sverdlovsk region are famous and the second largest Vorontsovsky mine. This is a relatively young enterprise, but today it is developed very actively using the work of work in winter. Experts assess the volume of gold on it in 65 tons.
Another largest Natalkin deposit is located in a dry log, Where there are similar sources of gold mining, which can boast by the essential metal reserves in 27 tons. Along with the deposits, it should be noted Rich alluvial placers Omechak, Dogaldyn and Bereleh.
They are focused on the main part of all available similar Russian reserves of an axized precious metallol.
Enterprises of the branch of gold mining
Analysis of the aggregate volume of the mined gold of Russia shows that Most valuable metal deposits are located in the Urals and further behind it. The central part of the country is represented in this area only three gold trees. Development of all indigenous fields is carried out by several large enterprises in the field of gold mining.
The company “Severstal” It has international status in the metallurgical industry, in addition, owns 5 mines located on the territory of the Republic of Sakha, Buryatia and in the Amur region. “Polyus Gold” Also ranked as the world’s largest gold mining enterprise. The geography of its deposit is limited to Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Magadan and Amur regions.
Second place in the country in terms of the production of gold belongs Polymetal. It is active in the territory of Chukotka, the Urals and the Magadan region. Yuzhuralzoloto Group Carries out the production process with closed and open methods at the Chelyabinsk Region fields, Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Republic of Khakassia. Canadian KINROSS GOLD Received the right to produce a yellow metal in the Republic of Sakha.
All about gold mining in Russia and about the gold mining business as a whole, see the video below.