How the amber is formed in nature?

How the amber is formed in nature?

Mineral, which externally reminds wood resin, a lot of centuries were interested in researchers. Yantar knew more people of the prehistoric era. Pliny senior, for example, believed that it was petrified. Agrikola supported an antique philosopher, and even Lomonosov came to this conclusion. Passed century. How modern scientists explain the origin of amber, we find out, peering into current sources.

Process description

Approximately about 50 million years ago, before the emergence of a person on Earth, in the territory of the current Sweden, the Baltic Parts were dry. And this is an important circumstance to understand the processes of amber’s origin in nature.

The first step of the formation of the mineral – the separation of resin of coniferous trees. It happened, most likely due to the sharp warming of climate. Pines were characterized by high sensitivity to climatic changes. When hurricanes and thunderstorms began, pines allocated a special resin-sanitary.

She worked better than an antibiotic: Zhivitsa soon dried, forming a hard smooth crust at the place of damage.

Thick and very adhesive fluid led to the formation of glands, drops, clots, that under the weight of his own weight turned out to be on Earth. The bulk of the Allows of the Zhivitsa flowed out of the pine during the spring burlyas. But the rodents, who did not regret pines, led to the injury of trees, and “heal” wounds were taken by the fatty resin.

The process of extraction of the resin could end and begin again, which led to the multilayer clusters of the All. Insects could sit on the resin, they adhere to adhesive fluid, there remained. Forever.

Burial zhivitsa

This can be called the second stage of amber education. This process is due to physicochemical changes. It was very important, in what specifically the conditions will be resin. If the soil was dry, the oxygen took an active part in the transformation of the Allowers: its stability increased, the hardness grew.

But the wetlands did not contribute to this, because there was a fragile so resin.

Next happens erosion, transfer and deposition of the gavitsa in water. Conditions that could be necessary for the formation of amber are conjugate with hydrodynamics and geochemistry of the pool.

To formed amber in nature, we need special waters – Ilovye, with oxygen rich in potassium. When these water come into contact with the resin, succinic acid and esters of this acid appear in it. In the completion of these difficult processes, not only amber himself is formed, but also glauke. And the definition of the latter brought researchers to the idea of ​​weakly alkaline and weak-substituting media.

The transformation data led to the fact that the resin weighing seals became not so soluble, as initially, its viscosity increased and the temperature indicators of melting. Small molecules in the All macromolecule.

Thus, the amber appeared, which is a high molecular compound.

Climate needed for its formation

The climate in the northern part of Europe, where millions of years ago came the formation of amber, resembled the current climatic conditions of the Southern European part and subtropics. The average annual temperature indicator did not fall below the positive 18 degrees.

What else can be said about the climate, in which amber is formed:

  • Not very high forest illumination, on the lower branches, the light approached little due to the upper closed crown+
  • Vegetation did not give ultraviolet to fit into the soil+
  • Forest soils were sandy, covered layer of soil soft litter+
  • Air is almost oversaturated with water vapors that rose from wet soil.

    With this climate, all favored the development of lush vegetation. There is even such a concept – “Amber Forest”. This is a complex vegetable community that is characterized even with very detailed descriptions difficult. Only pines there, as some scientists believe, were up to twenty species.

    After the climate has become much severe, “Amber Forests” disappeared. Most of the territory they occupied, went to the ocean. Only amber, resin, that an incredible way of petrified, remained a witness of prehistoric times. Amber “remembers” the planet before the appearance of a person.

    It turns out that the stone became an artifact, and also opened the door for modern scientists in a very long time, helped restore the picture of “amber forests” with their unique flora and fauna.

    Physical properties of stone

    The hardness and melting point of amber is higher than the best varieties of copalov. It has been proven that the yellow-honey mineral is soluble in terpene and organic hydrocarbons. In its natural range, amber can be found in the form of fragments of various sizes, which are reminiscent of the form of resinous seals of coniferous trees.

    The density of amber was almost equal to the density of sea water: in salt water, the mineral pops up, and in fresh – sinks. Such a circumstance and explains the sustainability and intraceability of a stone that is experiencing and repeatedly transferring, jumped, reburial, and all this tens of millions of years.

    There are other physical properties of the mineral.

    • On the flame of candles, amber melts, and boiled begins at 250-300 degrees at 250-300. Heating forces the mineral to smooth, burn with a smoking flame. The smell will be pleasant, resinous. By the way, this is the best way to distinguish genuine amber from fake – no resinous aroma heating fake, of course, will not bring.

    • With friction, amber is electrified, attracts minor items, charges static electricity. And with this, another interesting historical fact is connected: the antique philosopher Fales Mietetsky found this property of amber. Researchers picked up the opening of the philosopher, saw blue sparks when rubbing the stone of wool, and called these sparks by electron. And the electron, by the way, the Greek name is amber.

    • If you ask, but what is the color of amber, the answer will be unequivocal – yellow. But experts counted about two hundred color shades enclosed in a rather wide range of colors. Under the action of the sun amber will glow. Glitter glass glass, resin, sink and uneven.

    • Air bubbles observed in amber include about 30% oxygen.

    In one amber drop – evidence of events not just many years ago, multi-million dollars.

      Bugs, mosquitoes, butterflies, lizards, leaves, flowers, pine cones and other organic residues preserved in amber and make mineral so unique and valuable for science. It turns out that this stone is not just beautiful, his education is more interesting for his decorative parties.

      Places of prey

      It is impossible to say that all amber fields are quite investigated. The seaside deposit has detailed characteristics, which you can not say about others.

      There are primary and secondary deposits. The first multifactorically connected with coal mining sites. The distribution of amber here can not be called uniform. These are allochtonal deposits (they include Fushunskoye, Uglovskoe, Alaskan). Secondary (placer) clusters of the stone are completely distinguished from the fields of the initial location. Species of such placers a lot. The main site of the extraction of the diverse amber is the Baltic and Dnieper province (emphasis is not on the Baltic Sea, but to the territory of the North Sea to black with the capture of Denmark, Poland, and more Germany, Ukraine, Belarus).

      The world’s largest is a seaside deposit, which is not in Kaliningrad, of course, and 40 km from him. This deposit is known since Paleolithic.

      Each field should be studied in detail, and today researchers do focus on this. Amber is an excellent divestone stone, because it makes sense to study the places where you can get it and make production technology increasingly perfect.

      Scope of application

      Main area Use- Jewelery production. Mineral decorations are very beautiful and certainly unusual. It is specially treated, the shape, shine and radiance give it. You can buy a small caladter from amber, and you can buy chic beads, earrings, rings and bracelets. If the frame is precious, it will look great, but the simple metal is quite suitable, because in beads and earrings the main thing is the stone itself.

        The brightest, attracting attention of the product is amber with insect fragments, feathers and bubbles.

        These are valuable decorations that make you the owner of a unique artifact.

        For souvenirs, the mineral is also used: figurines and boxes, clocks and chess, pyramids are made from natural amber (or with its engines). Manually make amber plates, spoons and forks. It is believed that this dishes has neutralizing properties. Mainly acquire it because of beauty, sunlight.

        Apply a stone and in medicine in the form of succinic oil:

        • In therapy of injuries – stretching, bruises, for muscle heating+
        • For massage of different parts of the body (most often vertebrates)+
        • For rubbing at pneumonia, bronchitis, colds+
        • For rubbing for diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

        But the amber powder is used in cosmetology. She actually acts on the dermis, removes pigmentation, rejuvenates. From this powder, by the way, make amber powder used for therapy gums.

        Waste from stone processing are often decor in paintings.

        Waste from stone processing are often decor in paintings. Finally, there is such a masterpiece of art as an amber room, which is not for nothing countlown to the miracles of light.

        Amber, its properties and origin – the topic that has not yet been exhausted, it is studied by serious researchers who are not indifferent to biology children and adults.

        About how the amber is mined, look in the following video.

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