Amber – petrified resin of ancient trees. In the world he is not so rare. For millions of years, resistant to the effects of the external resin forces together with the trunks was often demolished with water streams and overlapped with layers of loose rocks. Wood at the same time, as a rule, collapsed, but with a resin there was very unusual transformation – she gained the properties of the stone. Sometimes layers containing petrified resin – amber, turn out again on the surface, as, for example, happened on the Baltic Sea coast, and then this witness of the earned era can be accessible to people.
Of particular interest for jewelers and scientists, exploring the development of life, are stones with inclusions: sometime in the Western animals that adhered to the flowing resin insects, spiders and other small creatures. They were unable to free themselves, resin gradually swallowed them as if he couldciling.
Features of stones
Amber – Unusual Divotal Stone. If the crystallization of most rocks is a geochemical process, which flows in the depths of the planet, as a rule, at the highest temperatures and colossal pressure, the amber in its formation passes a completely different way. And it begins not in depths, but even on the contrary.
The wound, obtained by a tree, for example, from the impact of lightning, with a strong wind or from falling another tree, hesitated from the resin vessels. Resin delays damage, preventing parasite penetration, covers and the tree continues to grow under its layer. At the same time, the brilliant, almost transparent viscous mass attracts various small inhabitants of the forest, and they, in the hope of exploring, rush to the damaged tree.
While the tree grows, the resin remains on its trunk in cracks and chips, filling them. Maybe it is also inside the trunk, if a young tree was damaged, gradually such a plot will be under layers of gross wood and bark. When the tree will inevitably die, his barrel, falling, will begin to decompose, but the changed structure of the resin can be preserved for millions of years, hiding inside the prehistoric inclusions.
Amber always appreciated for her unusual color resembling the sun. Unlike many other diverse stones, it seems to radiate heat and light. To the touch, this stone is really warm.
Essentar’s pieces of amber with inclusions, once considered to be a game of nature, peculiar coincidences with the appearance of insects or other small creatures. The price of such unique amber slices can reach tens of thousands of dollars. This is perhaps, The only aircraft stone, the price of which increases thanks to the inclusion.
The share of such stones hardly exceeds 10% of the total volume of the total amber.
Samples of amber from various fields are often significantly different in their physical properties: a shade of color, hardness, fragility. The reason for differences may be the origin – belonging to different biological species of trees, various age, the chemical composition of the enclosing rocks, the depth of ground and much more.
How they turn out?
Formation of biological inclusions – the process is far from rare, it happens in our time. Feeding resin – attractive substance for many insects. However, after touching it, it is not all possible to free. If the resin continues to flow, caught by chance the creature gradually turns out to be under the layer of this viscous fluid. Such inclusions were named Latin term “inclusive” (inclusion). Moisture is gradually evaporated from the resin, the moisture is gradually evaporated, it becomes hard and often grows into the barrel, as a foreign body, having completed its task, protecting the damaged organism from externalific evidence.
The remaining past animals remained, as it should be, in their place, inside the accumulation of resin. Having passed its considerable life path, like any living being, sooner or later dies, his wood is most often overloaded, but the hardened resin is not affected by this process becomes the property of the earth’s crust as an ordinary stone. It enters loose rocks, water streams affect it, it throws it along with the pebble marine surf. This is how the stone of varying degrees of efficiency is formed – amber.
Amber retains inside himself everything that in him, one way or another, fell hundreds of millions of years. Modern researchers use amber pieces in order to restore the composition of the air of the old era, After all, except biological inclusions, In Amber, often contain bubbles with air. Notice them in the processed amber is not difficult at all.
However, more interest in the townships, and for experts, represent the animals canned in stone.
Most often in inclusions are found, of course, insects. Since the appearance on Earth about 150 million years ago, this group of invertebrates firmly occupied leadership in the number of species and a variety of forms. Thus, Insects in Yantar – this is natural, you can even say, the inevitable phenomenon caused by a long joint living insects and plants. The diversity of insects in the ancient epochs was just confirmed by the frequency of their presence within the amber pieces – the fossil resin.
However, inclusion in amber is not limited only by representatives of this always numerous group. Some less often the victims of the resin became other animals: spiders, scorpions, loft. Predators Surely sought to try happiness near the resin attractive for insects – as a result, they themselves were caught with their victims. And the wets, most likely, became prisoners of amber due to their slowness. If the resin flowed quickly, they just found themselves on her way.
Another thing is rare findings of more complex creatures. So, a small lizard has been recognized in one of the amber slices, living in the forest about 55 million years ago. How she became a victim of resin? Most likely, she also hunted and approached her in an attempt to podkraulil around insects. Further development of the plot is easy.
Lizard could use the favorite admission of most of its modern conifers – a sharp throw on a suspect sacrifice. Did her hunt, now it does not matter. The result was the unique amber with a small ancient lizard inside.
The most famous incluse
The study of the contents of amber began in the XVIII century. He began to study under the microscope and found out that inside really inclusions – the inclusion of foreign bodies, and not at all the game of nature, as previously thought. The study of inclusion has even become one of the directions of paleontology – science exploring the remains of the ancient inhabitants of the Earth.
Currently, thanks to Yantary, thousands of species of disappeared creatures have been described, which in other ways never to become the property of science. Amazes the similarity of the ancient inhabitants with their modern relatives. Already in the mesozoic on Earth, all modern groups of insects lived, did not differ from modern and spiders. Yes, and scorpions were exactly the same.
Canned pollen and parts of the plants also testify to the existence on the Earth many modern representatives throughout at least one hundred million years.
Much less often are truly unique finds, allowing more fully to restore the evolution of individual groups of organisms. Of course, not all of them and far from immediately fall into scientific laboratories, since it is the uniqueness of individual stones with inclusions makes them the most valuable not only for science, but also on organized auctions.
In the Baltic Amber, most often there are inclusions containing flying insects, such as Mosquito, mock, fly, different types of beetles. This allows us to conclude about the past region. Most likely, evergreen forests have occurred here with numerous fresh reservoirs. This confirms the presence of various ants – and in our time of typical forest insects.
However, sometimes real unicumes are found in amber. In Burma was found a piece of amber with the remnants of a long and thin tail covered with feathers. A comprehensive sample study confirmed the assumption that this is the tail of the Cretaceous Dinosaur.
No less striking was the find of unusual arthropods, taken first for some scorpions. After a detailed study, the group of spiders was called tailed spiders. The appointment of a sealing increase in the abdomen of these creatures is not yet clear.
And quite inexplicable is a discovery inside amber – the generation of ancient trees – a small fish or shells of mollusks.
Similar unusual inclises were found in the Carpathians. Explained this fact yet.
Yantar helped learn a lot about the ancient epochs of our planet, however, and at the same time they soely guess the unresolved riddle. In the pieces of this unusual rock for its study, everything was found – from microorganisms and microscopic pollen to the bird feathers and scales reptiles, however, there was still no need to be found or at least fragments of the needles of those mysterious trees that resin streams who became over millions of years amber.
About how animals fall into amber, look next.