Pearls: what is this stone and where they produce, properties and species

Pearls: what is this stone and where they produce, properties and species

What woman did not try at least once a pearl necklace or earrings? The brilliance of this stone fascinates, his radiance makes shining the eyes of the one that he is wearing. But what is the attractiveness of pearl and why he is so interesting? Let’s try to understand.

What it is?

Pearl called a gem having an animal origin. He is so in the world one. His education is not in the depths of the earth, as, for example, in rubies or sapphires, and in the sinks of bivalve mollusks.

Ancient Greeks assured that the pearls turn, solid, tears of mermaids, and in medieval people, they believed that the angels hide in the sinks of tears of those who were offended without guilt, and then they become pearls.

Of course, the explanation of the origin of pearls is much more prosaic – so mollusk, whose house – sink, protects itself. Pearl begins to form when a foreign body is found inside the shell, which begins to irritate the gentle flesh of the mollusk. It is not able to throw it out “overboard”, so it starts to envelop the pearl, covering the layers, just as if it formed his own sink.

Pearl – this is what the mollte mantle produces the substance from which the sink is inside.

What consists of?

In a different way, the organic pearl is called wild. It consists of an embryo – it can be the grave, the smallest insect or air bubble, a drop of water, and numerous pearl layers. As soon as the carbonate ball is formed, the friction force decreases.

The form that the pearl is acquired in the process of growth is related to the location of its embryo. Ideally, round pearls are formed in the field of melt mantle. And if the embryo was not far from the sink surface, such a pearl will grow up with a layer of pearl sink and acquires an irregular shape. Such pearls call blisters. If the germ got into the muscle of the mollusk or the area next to it, the shape of the pearl may turn out very peculiar.

Mollusks combined by groups that have the ability to form pearls are called pearls. They are divided into marine and river (freshwater) varieties.

River pearls are more common and cheaper than maritime. It is easier to get, since in freshwater pearls at the same time can grow to 20 pearls. However, it should be noted that River pearls smaller, less brilliant and not so perfectly round, like sea. But they are significantly more durable and less susceptible. The world is mostly obtained by river pearls.

Marine mollusks of pinktada and pteria “comes” the highest quality pearls. They are located in the depths of the sea with high density settlements. They are called “banks”.

How mining?

Initially, pearls were mined with divers. This is an ancient and extremely dangerous profession, she is more than 4 thousand years old. The diver was divened under the water about 20 meters, having only a knife with him, and had to be there for a minute or one and a half, collect so many shells, as can. And the most important thing – such dives per day he had to make at least 30! Let’s not forget about sharks that we slept in the sea of ​​desperate hunters for pearls.

Known Burmitsky pearls, which was mined in the Persian Gulf since ancient years. It was wary of nobles, including Russian. He was considered expensive and very high quality.

Learning how pearls formed in nature, a person learned to grow it with artificially. The first such attempts relate to the XIII century. China began to try to grow pearls in oysters, opening them with bamboo sticks, placing copper, lead or wood particles in the sink. Then the oyster was closed and returned to the seaside. Ready pearls were collected after 3-4 years.

At the beginning of the 20th century, this method was patented by the Japanese, in particular, Kokty Mikimoto. They are now leading in global cultivated pearl cultivated. And this despite the consequences of the catastrophic tsunami in 2011, which resulted in the overwhelming majority of pearl cultivation farms. For a short time, world leadership in this industry captured China, however, the Japanese industry quickly recovered.

In addition, the Chinese water area does not allow grinding pearl with a diameter above 7 mm. And the diameter of 8 mm and more increases its price. So Japan continues to keep the championship in the production of the largest pearls.

How does this happen? Take the oyster, gently open her sash, put the “princess” there, it can be a tiny glass ball or beads. After that, the sink is placed in a pond, which created the optimal conditions for the life of the mollusk. For growing one good sea pearl you need about 3 years old, river – 2 years.

Such pearls are called Cultivated. 90% of pearls from which decorations are made belong to cultured. Its properties are absolutely the same as the wild, but the cost is significantly lower. However, it should be known that the cultured pearl contains a large number of defective copies. Main suppliers of this type of pearl – Japan and China. Australian and Polynesian cultivated pearls are also highly quoted.

Views

Pearl species are much larger than just river and sea. Let’s focus on the most popular.

Pearls Tahiti formed by large black oysters Pinctada Margaritifera. This species is the only natural, the rest – painted. Taitian pearls grow faster than the rest, but the pearls of perfect round shape produces a very small amount of mollusks. Each of the black Tahitian pearls has a unique form, so it’s not easy to create decorations.

To “fit” one to another, has to sort out a huge amount of pearls. In addition to differences in shape, they are differently painted – have blue tump, eggplant, olive, blue and even dark red, wine. The most expensive colors are cobalt and blue-green “peacock” – Peacock. To assemble a necklace from Tahiti pearls, leave years, because you need to pick up and the form, and the color of the pearl perfectly. Accordingly, the price for such an ornament Astronomical.

The name “Tahiti” does not mean that only there is mine. Just there it is not mined, Tahiti is only a shopping center for this type of industry. And the scatter of pearl farms – throughout Polynesia: Islands Gambier, in Micronesia.

Pearls “Tahiti” crossed cultivation much later than all other types – in the 1960s.

Pearls “Barochko” happens different – and wild origin, and cultivated. Difference of the species – in the fancy of the forms taken by pearls. As for the color range, the “Baroque” are of different colors, in addition, have different colors. Although the most valuable are pearls of perfect round shape, the price of “Baroque” is high.

The pearls of the southern seas – the view of the cultivated pearl, considered the most noble and beautiful. It is made by very large marine mollusks of Pinctada Maxima, whose shell weight can reach 5 kg. The perfect round form of pearls is very rare. Now all the pearls grown with Pinctada Maxima are referred to as the “pearl of the Southern Seas”, mostly Australian, Indonesian and Philippine water areas. In the diameter of the pearl reaches 10-20 mm, being the most expensive of cultivated.

The color scheme ranges from white to gold and orange, as well as blue and black shades. Dark pearls shine more intense than light. Golden – the most spectacular and expensive. The pearls of the southern seas are covered with a very thick pearl layer – about 6 mm.

Let’s stop at freshwater pearls. The average size is 4-6 mm, rarely – more than 9-10 mm, This is usually cultivated specimens that are very expensive. For the cultivation of river pearls, a very small kernel is used, so The layer of his pearl on it is much thicker, and shine, respectively, stronger.

The most developed cultivation of freshwater pearls in China’s waters. For this, two types of mollusks are used: Hyriopsis Cumingii – “manufacturer” of pearls of a wide variety of shades, and Cristaria Plicata – is responsible for creating white, cream and pink specimens. Form they have the most different – from oval to droplets.

Round and large copies – rarity.

Pearl Akaya made by oysters with the corresponding name. Pearls most often spherical shapes and a wide variety of shades: white, cream, pink, silver, pale yellow and greenish black. Diameter range – 5-9 mm, larger stones rare and very expensive. This kind of pearl is produced in Japan on the islands Honsu and Kyushu.

Pearl “Kechi” It is formed when marine or freshwater mollusks reject the raised implant. There are no kernels in such a pearl, however, the mother of pearl, as well as in all other cases, layers, in the sink. These copies are also considered natural. Kesha is more common in the wild, and not in cultivated. Kechi shape resembles a flower petals, it is used to create jewelry.

Hemispherical pearls are grown in China, Japan and America. The shape of the hemisphere is achieved due to the fact that the pearl is grown on the sink. Hemispherical pearls are very in demand in jewelry production, it is used for the design of the rings, earrings, suspension and bracelets, where it is attached to the flat side inside. This is an inexpensive view of pearls, but there are also expensive copies of marine origin. This species is called MABA (MABE), the so-called “half-segment”.

After the dome-shaped “half-segment” is rolled up on the inner surface of the sink, it is cut with high accuracy, epoxy resin is poured into the cut cavity. MABA is not as durable as the usual pearl. As a rule, MABE has a proper geometric shape, a large size, and even unusual and very rich color gamut of gentle shades. The spectrum ranges from the gentle pink to the blue with a metal glitter, also there are silver-white and dark pearls.

MABA is brilliant and overflow very brightly, which makes them stunningly beautiful in jewelry.

Artificial pearls are a mineral synthesized without the participation of mollusk shell, and exclusively thanks to man. Pearl for pearls is mined directly from the sink. Plastic or glass is used for the kernel. There are a large number of technologies for the production of synthetic pearls.

Properties

Mineralogy determines pearls as:

  • having pearl shine+
  • White, Pink, Yellow, Black+
  • Amorphous Singonia+
  • Moos scale determines the hardness of 4 points+
  • Density – 2.6-2.8 g / cm3+
  • having a riggy.

The structure of pearls is the same layered as the mother of pearl. Because it is the mother of pearl, only not on the smooth, but on the spherical surface. Due to the fact that the pearl fabrics slowly evaporate moisture, the pearl over time is drying, loses the shine, it smells, yellowing and ultimately disintegrates.

Despite the shade of the pearl, its composition is constant: pearls consists of calcium crystalline carbonate and koliolin.

Magic

The magical properties of pearls is that it brings financial well-being and happy life. In some cultures, the briefness of this stone, on the contrary, is a symbol of tears and in vain hopes. Also, pearls are a faucet from damage, evil eye, theft and false people. They balance the flow rate, relate it to the moon cycle. There is a belief that this precious stone attracts good luck to the volitional and spiritually rich people.

Healing

The composition of this stone includes organic calcium in large quantities, and it is from it that depends on the therapeutic properties of pearls. It was used in different ways, but in one way or another, those substances from which it consists. For example, in Chinese medicine, it is proposed to rub the pearls in powder and rubbing it into the skin.

The method of drinking acidic water is also common, in which the pearls have kept before that for some time. In the dry wine, pearls after a certain period dissolves completely, and then the wine is saturated with all trace elements, useful for a person.

Pearls and turquoise – two stones that “sign” about health problems. Turquoise starts to darken, and pearls – dull and then becomes muddy in appearance, and this means that the owner is time to visit the doctor. It is relevant only for those jewelry that man wears constantly, as they are in contact with his body.

Tibetan pearl water – a drink that struggles with inflammation, bacteria, stops bleeding. For her preparation, you just need to take a few pearls and put them in clean water, putting it in a cool place and closing the container. After 3-4 hours, the water is ready. It can be treated with gum diseases, bustling stones, bring the menstrual cycle to normal.

Pearl water with eye diseases – conjunctivitis, cataract and others helps.

Who fits?

There is no woman who would not go decorations with pearls, but whether he will suit her – this is a question. It is a stone of great strength, but also high sensitivity. Self-satisfied, pompous people he does not fit, as well as those whose sensitivity and without pearls is high. Actors, athletes, travelers do not need to wear products with pearls – the likelihood of “unbalance” of physical forces with mental.

And the ladies engaged in the business, or representatives of such professions as a judge, lawyer, the prosecutor, the tax inspector, is extremely recommended to wear pearl decorations more often. Business women will be able to make an extremely successful deal for themselves, and “security officials” will be able to make true decisions, guided by both the “body” and “spirit”.

As for the color, type of appearance, age and style – Pearl products are so diverse that every woman can pick up suitable for himself, and it doesn’t matter how old she is and what style it prefers.

Of the 12 signs of the zodiac, astrologists recommend worn pearls and fish. For a strong manifestation of the properties of the stone, it must be worn in several threads – both on beads and on bracelets.

The more honest and sincere person, the more objective and understanding it will become, putting the pearl decoration.

How to determine the fake?

The quality of fake pearls is often very high and fake stones look like real. However, in most cases, it is quite realistic to distinguish a fake from natural pearls, even by type – shine, smoothness, the presence of external defects will tell themselves for themselves.

Find out, a true pearl in front of you, very easy. You need to throw pearls on a flat surface – a worktop, for example. Natural stones will push off the surface and jumped, and artificial – will be punished.

Also experts try tooth products. As a rule, fake decorations have perfect smoothness, whereas the real mother-in-law is rough, because it is untreated. Pearls do not need neither grinding, nor in other processing.

So as not to get on the fishing fraudsters, buy products from pearls where the likelihood to acquire a fake is zero. For example, from a trip to Vietnam, carry Vietnamese pearls, and from Japan – Japanese cotton.

That is, buy pearls in countries where its mining and cultivation is one of the leading industries.

How to wear?

Pearls in everyday life need to wear very carefully so as not to add age, since this stone is very “age”. If you are not on the evening dress “in the floor” and you do not go to a secular reception, then the pearl set of earrings, necklace and bracelet you definitely do not need.

On weekdays it is best to wear a few long pearl threads with a twisted jacket in the style of “Chanel”, a white shirt or blouse and jeans. If you are not afraid to attract attention, select a bracelet or beads from very large pearls into several threads. Excellent waters of unusual design with large pearls.

Subtleties of care

The nature of pearls is organic, so it is characteristic of collapses faster than other precious stones. In a wet environment he swells, and with too dry air it crumbs and disintegrate. Pearls do not possess hardness, while they are durable. It is typical to them to react to acid, makeup and cosmetics, hair polish, perfume.

It should be avoided by the fall of the one listed on the stone, otherwise it will begin to lose shine. So that the pearls are not older, it is necessary Wash in water with dissolved sea salt. Do it necessary every six months.

Also should not store products from pearls under the right rays of the sun. And the best way to protect the stone from aging is more often wearing. Permanent sock of products with pearls prevents them drying and saves shine.

Interesting facts about pearls See next video.

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