Methods for obtaining silver and some other precious metals with cleaning from impurities a lot, and some of them are possible exclusively in industrial enterprises and chemical laboratories. However, there are techniques that allow silver affination in living conditions.
It is about them that we will talk in our review.
Essence of the procedure
In order to obtain purified silver from technical, techniques apply that allow it to save it from various impurities. The totality of all techniques received the name of the affinant. In essence, such a procedure represents an industrial process, however, you can perform all the necessary manipulations and at home.
For cleansing, you can use such objects as:
- Any silver jewelry+
- Clams obtained during the electrotechnical processing of Argentum+
- Technical scrap containing impurities+
- Waste lead industry.
You can get pure Argentum from radio components, silver plated parts and silver contacts, as well as fragments of ores obtained during fossil production.
Domestic methods of silver affinage include the following techniques:
- Chemical chlorination+
The final choice of an application of affinity depends on factors such as:
- Number of metal treated+
- The possibility of ensuring the continuity of the technological process+
- The initial state of the alloy being processed.
A set of basic directly depends on what method of obtaining silver you chose.
So, for the affinal of the Argentum of the elements will be required:
- Glass container+
- Quartz stick+
- Nitric acid+
- ammonium chloride+
- Sodium sulfide+
- Any filter+
- Deonized water+
- Copper Lom.
When conducting checkout, you need to cook:
To perform electrolysis necessary:
- power unit+
- Insulating material+
- stainless steel+
- insulating tape+
- Tea Packet Bag+
- Any plastic container.
Silver affinage is quite profitable. But since during metal purification, some chemicals are used, security rules are required.
The first thing to pay attention to even before the start of the work is The possibility of venting out the room in which silver cleaning measures will be carried out. An ideal option will be working outdoors – this will warn poisoning hazardous chemicals. If there is no such possibility, you should choose the room in which the powerful extract is installed, and there are windows that can be discovered if necessary.
To protect the skin, eye and mucous membranes, we need to wear rubber gloves, special glasses and necessarily a robe.
At the stage of working with nitric acid additionally need to wear a respirator, Otherwise, a pair of this dangerous substance will fall into the lungs and will cause paralysis of the upper respiratory tract.
Pay special attention to the fact that It is strictly forbidden to pour water into acid – This can cause chemical splashing. According to the safety rules of behavior in a chemical laboratory, only the acid itself can be carefully pouring into water.
In general, if accurate follow the technical instructions for affinze and comply with the established order of processes, You can get a precious metal of the highest quality even in domestic conditions without any threat to the life and health of a person conducting work.
This method is used to obtain precious metals from solutions. The procedure for cleaning silver from additional impurities at home in this case includes several steps.
- Initially, a slight sodium sulfate is added to the solution so that silver sulphate is obtained as a result. After the compositions reverse with each other, ammonium chloride is added to them – as a result of this reaction, silver chloride is obtained.
- The liquid formed during these reactions is defended for some time so that it is divided into separate fractions. As a result, two separate solutions should be obtained – one transparent, the other is more muddy.
- After performing chemical silver affinity, silver itself should be separated from the solution, for this you will need a funnel, as well as a paper filter.
- The whole solution is poured into the bag – the liquid flows into the plastic container, and the powder metal will be noticeable on paper.
- All powder obtained should be dried and rushing into a single whole – this is a low-sample silver chloride. Of it, it is necessary to get a pure metal. To do this, it is mixed with calcium carbonate in equal proportions and melted.
Silver is considered completely purified in the event that no cloues will be visible during re-making salts.
Purification of the base technical Argentum is performed using Cutting. This technology is based on the unique feature of lead molten together with the Argentum, oxidized outdoors and separate from the metal itself along with the rest of the impurities.
To perform a relief, you will need a stove in the form of a bowl, fully covered with mergel. For reference: Mergel is a rare limestone porous clay. It has a characteristic feature that contributes to the maximum absorption of lead oxides.
Step-by-step silver removal technique looks like this.
- The oven warmly warm and put the test tubes filled with technical Argentum, as well as lead.
- The crucible warm up to the final melting. Upon completion of the thermal reaction, the crucible is taken out, and its contents are spilled in pre-prepared forms.
- After the composition completely cools, it will have a rainbow tint. This means that there is not only silver in it, but some other precious metals.
Obviously, during all manipulations, you can get an argentum alloy with gold or platinum.
As an anode in electrolysis, contaminated silver, cathode is represented by thin stripes made of stainless steel.
Anode is placed in small linen bags – all dissolved pollution in the form of silver particles avoid electrolytic dissolution will be collected in them. At the same time, silver is postponed on cathodes. If you do not have a lot of experience in the execution of silver affinity, it is better to appeal in this technique.
Conditionally, the whole process is divided into 3 main stages:
- Metal dissolution in acid+
- Selection of silver salts and their further fusion+
- directly affinaz himself.
At the initial stage, you will need:
- Nitric acid solution 68-70%+
- Quartz stick+
- Any glass container.
To begin with, pure acid is mixed with deionized water in a ratio of 1 to 1. The resulting composition is stirred with a wande from quartz. Divorced acid is spilled by specialized containers intended for conducting chemical experiments. To obtain silver nitrate, about 50 g of silver for each liter of fluid will be required.
Silver substance need to melt in this fluid. This process is accompanied by the release of the NO2 gas, and also causes staining of the composition in blue. The dissolution lasts for quite a long time – for the complete completion of the reaction you need at least 8-12 hours.
After that, the so-called “silver pigment” should be mined. For this, the metallic Argentum is displaced from silver nitrate with copper. We draw attention to the fact that as a source of copper, you can use any water pipes purchased to shine. Adding this element provokes chemical reaction acceleration. The resulting silver cement on the tubes is an Argentum in powder form.
The essence of the process is that the tubes are given to silver nitrate their copper, so during the refining they completely dissolve, and if it happened, you need to add another portion. During the displacement of silver, the process slows down, so you can leave it for several days without control. The only thing is necessary keep under control the presence of copper in solution, and also to watch no extraneous elements appear in it.
At the completion of the chemical process, it will indicate a fully cooled solution without any visible signs of the reaction, as well as the presence of a blue liquid at the top and a layer of silver cement below.
Then you can make directly filtering cement. Keep in mind that the filtering procedure should be done at least 5 times, only so you can get rid of the residues of copper nitrate. After cleaning is completed, you should collect all the remaining cement, evaporate excessive moisture or wait until it evaporates naturally.
At the end of filtering in solution, some silver can remain, so you can add a slightly table salt to it and leave until the sediment appears. Silver cement in dry form should be removed and rushing, for this it is necessary to warm it consistently and uniformly. Then pick into water. Due to this, grains are formed, designed for subsequent work with the metal.
At this stage, it turns out silver about 980 samples, That is, there will still be some additional impurities in alloy. You can get rid of them in the third stage, when the silver affinated directly is obtained, but it is necessary to overpay the resulting metal alloy to the bar.
To the resulting silver form should be attached to the ribbon from the stainless steel so that its edge remains to be hung. After that, from the plug, the tape and pliers should create a cathode, and the anodic wand do it through the filter. The prepared pre-solution of silver is bred by the usual distilled water, bringing its amount to 2 liters. The cathode is placed in an electrolytic bath, poured with a solution of electrolyte so as to eliminate the touch with a plot of contact of the tape and a silver bar. After that, minus is connected to the fork, and plus, respectively, to the stick, and the electric current is supplied.
After that, you need to ensure that the growing silver crystals have not reached the cathode, as it can cause a short circuit.
Upon completion of the reaction Silver bar is completely dissolved, after which the electrolyte is drained. Silver crystals are washed several times in water and dried. Then the crystals will then remain only.
Silver affining in living conditions can be a fascinating occupation, and its result – superior all your expectations. Each of the methods used is unique in its own way, and the efficiency of technology directly depends only on the efforts that you attach.
What are the features of silver affinity, see in the following video.