In its original state, natural silver is a rather fragile material. To strengthen it, various Ligatural additives, which must comply with the generally accepted system of interest ratio. The system indicating the composition of the precious alloy is called testing, and herself The sample is applied to the silver product in the form of a stamp. Masters working with precious metal independently can not put samples, and to exclude the appearance of fakes, the stigma on the finished products is made only in State Table Chamber.
History of Marking
When labeling, drawn on all silver products, numbers and letters are applied. And if the jewelry masters of the past centuries laundered their products, inflicting full information on them, including the name of the master, the value of the product, the date of its manufacture, the modern stamp on silver has very miniature sizes, and it is possible to read it only with the use of special increasing image devices.
Markings of products made of precious silver alloys have its own history and stages of formation. And in each country it happened in its own way. According to historical data, in Russia, a decree on the first drawing of stamps on precious metals dated 1613 year. According to the royal decree, all Russian masters of jewelry affairs were obliged to do a silver alloy, the composition of which was repeated a foreign coin ligature – Talera. In the taler, the content of pure silver was at least 93%. Silver marking was performed specifically on the authorized inspired masters, so the stamp soon became known as a breakdown. Stamp itself looked like Circle with three letters “є?TO”, And it was in the course of 1697 year.
The next royal decree on the norms of pursuing in Russia was adopted In 1896, When the territory of the state was divided into 11 districts, each of which had its own Stamp for silver. Jewelers working under the royal yard, was allowed to label silver products with the help of stamps on which was depicted Tsarsky coat of arms.
Beginning with 1899, A single stigma was approved In the form of a female head with Kokoshnik, Head profile has been facing Right, And already In 1908 Stamp changed again, and Image profile began to watch left. At the same time, the stigma was added cipher Tablement Institution in the form of a Greek letter.
Since the beginning of the first applying stamps on a silver product and up to this day, the type of marking has undergone not one dozen changes. Existed officially recognized brand table, But not all types of labels. Until our times, only the most common copies are preserved, the rest were irretrievably lost.
In the modern world, the stamp is necessarily for several types of silver.
- Alloy 800 True – in its composition there is at least 80% of silver and 20% of the ligature in the form of copper. This composition is susceptible to fast oxidation and, as a result, darkening.
- Alloy 875 test – the composition contains at least 87.5% of noble silver. Such material is most often used for the manufacture of jewelry and cutlery.
- Alloy 925 test – It consists of 92.5% of silver, has a resistance to corrosion, does not have a straw-yellow shade and is well amenable to formation in the manufacture of products. Alloy is used for the production of jewelry.
- Alloy 960 test – It has at least 96% silver and is used in highly artized products with enamel, as well as for the production of expensive jewelry.
Depending on the percentage of silver metal alloy changing and its Characteristics, as well as the appearance of finished products.
The higher the content of natural silver, the less yellowness can be seen on jewelry or table devices made of alloy.
After in 1899, in the Tsarist Russia, a single stamp was taken to marking silver, its modifications were not over. And the old stamp was updated several times.
- 1908 – in all districts in Russia, pre-revolutionary masters had to label their products with new stigs. It looked in the form of a female profile, decorated with Kokoshnik. The profile of a female head looked to the right, and the sample itself was indicated in those vintage times as a shower.
- 1927 year – After the overthrow of the royal mode has changed and sample for silver. Now the female profile was replaced by the image of the working head in the cap and added the image of the hammer. Samples indicated no longer in spool, but in the metric system. The cipher of the assistance is still the Greek letter.
- 1958 – New stigma for silver marking again introduced on the territory of the USSR. It contained a sickle and hammer image that were placed in the center of a big five-pointed star. The cipher of the chamber has already been indicated by the capital letter of Cyrillic.
- 1994 year – After the collapse of the USSR, Soviet silver products began to marke the way we can see it now on any jewelry made of noble metal. Silver sample contains an indication of the composition of the alloy on the metric system.
According to the laws in force in our country, Everything without exception, silver products must be labeled.
Any things made of precious metals, but not having samples and those on sale are considered illegal.
In addition to the sample, they also put on silver products nameman. Any manufacturer – state or private – must have Personal stamps. Thus, on the product you will see the sample indicating the composition of the alloy, and the name indicating who the product was produced. On the name there is a digital manufacturer’s cipher, and every year it changes. All the names must be registered in the inspections of the penetration supervision, so two identical names from different manufacturers can not be. In total, there are 18 inspections operating in Russia, and each of them has its letter in the form of an encrypted marking designation.
There are 2 silver alloy composition measurement systems: carat and metric. Most European and Asian countries are used both carat and metric systems. These include France, Germany, Italy, England, Australia, Denmark, USA, Canada and others. Clean silver is accepted for 24 carats, and to translate it into the metric system, then use the formula: a test in karats must be multiplied by a metric sample and split the result by 1000.
The first stamp, officially registered in the territory of the Kingdom of England, was at the King Edward I – in 1300. English silver products containing 92.5% of silver in their composition labeling a brand in the form of a leopard head.
In Germany Mention of silver label dates back 1289 year. According to the Royal Decree, German silver label not only with a breakdown, but also a personal branding masters, made a product. The standard of high-quality silver in Germany of that time was an alloy with a noble metal content of at least 80%. Stamp looked in the form of a deployed crescent and the crown of the royal dynasty.
In France After the revolution of 1789, the standard of silver was alloys with a pure metal content of up to 95% and 80%. The first stamp on french silver was applied In the form of a rooster (symbol of revolution) and numbers 1 or 2 (i.e. 95% or 80% silver content). Modern print stamps now look different – they contain an image Minerva.
Swedish Silver was labeled with prints of three crowns and stigma with the letter S, meaning that the alloy contains 83% of silver. BUT Dutch For branding, up to 1698 round stigma with the inscription “Lion”.
Magnification of silver products did not always be protected from fakes. Often in foreign auctions in Europe you can see the lots of silver products that have labeling workshop Faberge. Since the products of the jewelry company used in advanced demand and had worldwide fame, foreign jewelers were eagerly engaged in creating fakes, exposing them for sale at a high price. The stamp famous Mathers Charles Faberge began to fake in his life.
Principles of application
Currently, stigma on silver put in several ways.
- Shock marking – stigma knock on the finished product. Now this process is performed automatically using the press, and earlier this process was carried out manually.
- Electrospreen method – The stamp with a special electrical appliance is burned on the surface of silver, while the figure is obtained as a single chain. The process itself is similar to the one that is performed when the metal engraving in the souvenir shop – the essence of the process is the same.
- Laser brand – Performed when using engraving. The marking on the product is accurate, but poorly noticeable, and it is possible to consider it only with the help of special magnifying devices in the form of a jewelry magnifying glass.
All 3 ways of marking are applied in certain situations. For example, gentle laser branding is performed on a hollow product, since the shock method of applying stamps could destroy its integrity.
Sometimes finished silver products can be covered with the finest layer of gilding, most often it is applied to inexpensive jewelry or table silver.
In this case, the product will be delivered 2 stamps: The first will show, from which material it is made and its composition, and the second will indicate the composition of the coating alloy. It also happens that the precious metal is contained only in the coating, while the base of the product is made, for example, from Melchior, aluminum or stainless steel. In this case, the stamp with breakdown will be only one, and the stamp with letters will show the material of the base (MN – Melchior, aluminum, stainless steel, and T. D.). When buying such products, you should be attentive and able to read the stigma in order not to purchase silver-plated cutlery or decorations for the price of silver (with high breakdown and cost).
How to distinguish fake?
Visually to distinguish the natural silver 925 samples from the metal alloys similar to it is quite difficult, but it is quite possible.
Alone at home can also be determined by silver authenticity and distinguish it from fake. You can do this in several simple ways.
- If you bring the usual magnet to the surface of the silver product, the metal will not be magnetized, since natural silver does not have such properties.
- Hold a silver product in your hands for a while, and you will notice that it is very quickly heated, which cannot be said about other metal alloys – they will remain cold or change their temperature is quite slightly. Silver has a high degree of thermal conductivity, so it quickly becomes warm from your hands.
- If you take a pharmacy sulfur ointment and apply it on silver, then a few hours later this place will darken. So silver comes into contact with gray, which is manifested by an oxidative reaction. Stainless steel products, for example, after such experience will remain invariably shiny.
- A small drop of iodine will help to identify natural silver. From contact with iodine silver drawn, and the stain is nothing to withdraw. Other metal alloys on iodine do not react.
- The easiest and most affordable method is to check silver with chalk. If the silver surface is gravily powder, the oxidative reaction will begin, and the silver will first begin to darken, and then it will darken it at all – it will be an indicator that in front of you is a silver product.
Performing self-authentication of silver, do it carefully and in a small place on the product, since the black spots that appeared will not withdraw anything, with the result that the decoration will lose its attractiveness.
If you have a serious expensive purchase of a large batch or valuable jewelry, to determine the authenticity of the material from which these items are made, You can invite a specialist as an expert, well-disassembled in this matter.
How to check silver authenticity at home See next video.