All about tissue polyurethane

All about tissue polyurethane

In a broad sense polyurethane – this is a polymer, and it happens completely different forms, depending on its composition. All about synthetic fabric and its features read in the article.

What is this material?

Like all plastics it is obtained when interacting isocyanates with a number of polyols. Depending on the desired final product (in order to make it more rigid or flexible), the chemical compounds may contain other ingredients, such as catalysts, foaming agents, and possibly antipyrins for mixing under high pressure conditions that give it high thermal insulation density. These various combinations allow to produce various types of products.

  1. Medical prostheses and implants.
  2. Shafts, tires, shock absorbers and other details for the construction and automotive industry.
  3. Textiles for the production of furniture, clothing, shoes, workwear, equipment for tourism and home goods.
  4. Other goods of widespread consumption (containers, bottles, diapers).

Can be said that today this is the most popular polymer, Used in all areas of human life, even in the oil industry for the production of bones (fire-resistant floating booms from leaks). Polyurethane fabric is an easy and extremely durable, waterproof material. All use it in one form or another every day – at home, in the office, car, holidays for recreation and sports.

Modern artificial fiber textiles is universal and safe for creating all sorts of consumer and industrial goods to make our life more secure, comfortable and environmentally friendly.

Composition and properties

Polyurethanes (PU) are the largest class of polymers with various properties. There are thousands of natural and artificial polymers, other most famous: nylon, silicon, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. They can be thermosetting or thermoplastic, hard and solid or flexible and soft. The product density is determined by the amount of foaming agent used, and the flexibility or rigidity is the type of polyols used and isocyanates.

Properties Polyurethanes pretty much depend on the structure of the main chain of the polymer. They can be adapted to ensure high strength, high rigidity or high flexibility and shock viscosity. Most have good resistance to oil, hydrocarbons, oxygen and ozone. Two main Disadvantages They are their susceptibility to the microbial attack and the propensity of aromatic urethanes to discoloration when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

Artificial leather It is a composite material consisting of one or more layers of polymer resins connected by urethane bonds, as well as woven or nonwoven textile base, such as polyester, cotton, nylon, or hammer skin.

PU coating is applied to the wrong side of the fabric, and then processed to resemble the animal skin. It makes it waterproof, light and flexible, ensures the most realistic skin imitation.


There are many different polyurethane fabrics whose quality is regulated by the State Standard of Russia. For clothing, haberdashery, shoe and upholstery artificial leathers, this is Gosta under the numbers: 28461-90 + p 56621-2015 + p 56626-2015 + r 57020-2016 and others.

Depending on the type, they have the following characteristics.

  1. Breaking load from 8 to 25 DAN.
  2. Stiffness not more than 7-70 CH.
  3. Resistance to multiple bending, not less than 50-150 kilocycles.
  4. Stability coloring for friction (dry and wet) at least 4-5 points.
  5. Communication strength between layers of at least 0.3-0.5 N / mm.
  6. Water removal of at least 250 mm of water. Art.
  7. Frost resistance from -10 to -20 degrees.
  8. Light resistance for light tones from 3 to 4 points.
  9. The magnitude of the deflection from multiple stretching no more than 5-7 mm.

Pros and cons

Similar materials, such as PVC, contain chloride and do not decompose by microorganisms. And polyurethane fabric does not use solvents, so it does not produce harmful toxins, and most of the material collapses with time.

It is able to resist the effects of heat and moisture, which means that one PU object can be used multiple times for longer periods than other materials, which significantly reduces the number of waste.

The main advantages:

  • low price+
  • Many textures and colors+
  • It happens breathing+
  • waterproof+
  • Easy to clean the usual sponge with soap, the dry cleaning is allowed, washing machine+
  • Does not release toxic substances, biodegradable after 500 years.

Products from the Pu cheaper and more convenient, They are easier to care for them, they are very durable and considered environmentally friendly. Nevertheless, the material is flammable, a harmful carbonate gas can form when burning. Such products are not cracking when used and not faded under the influence of sunlight.

For what is used?

Scientists have discovered that Polyurethane can be turned into thin threads, So first nylon appeared, from which stockings are made. Over the past years, he was improved to Spandex fibers. Thanks to today’s achievements, technology allows you to make Wide range of polyurethane fabrics: From artificial leather (including suede or velor) and eco-stories for outerwear and furniture upholstery to bags, jackets, skirts and outfits, various accessories, products for medicine and sports. In addition, the material is used to create more comfortable, durable and weather-resistant equipment, such as overalls, sports jackets and raincoats, shoes and insoles.

Fact! Thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers can be molded in different fibers. When they are hiding, the flexible material is obtained, called Spandex. Elastic materials are needed for the manufacture of socks, bras, support sleeves, swimsuits, sports equipment and many other.

The main advantage of genuine leather before leatherette is its breathability and ability to biological decomposition. But in 1963, scientists from the USA came up with a unique in their properties breathing ecocober, it is soft and elastic and much easier by weight.

Innovative technologies against animal abuse and make manufacture Polyurethane skin More eco-friendly option and less use of natural resources. Polyurethane fabrics are used In many industries, depending on their chemical composition and properties obtained in the production process.

They are the main material for the following products.

  1. Clothing, shoes and bags (including protective special equipment for industrial production).
  2. Textiles for furniture and automotive industry (upholstery material, soft fillers, mattresses).
  3. Medical goods (gloves, top of inflatable mattresses).
  4. Products for swimming and tourism (rescue vests and boats, membrane jackets and shoes).
  5. Children’s goods (reusable diapers).

    L. Gore and Associates in 1976 patented Gore-Tex – water-repellent, but at the same time breathable material. Since then, it is used in medical implants, for insulation of wires and in the production of clothing and shoes. Gore-Tex membrane became a fairly well-known brand, which offers ski and mountaineering clothes and shoes, jackets and overalls for lovers of outdoor activities. Such equipment effectively keeps moisture in all weather conditions.

    Interesting! Some polyurethane foams are called artificial leather for shoes, upholstery of sofas and many other goods.

    Polyurethane fabrics are lightweight, there are breathable and do not breathe. As a rule, retain their properties for at least 100 cycles in a washing machine without harm to the material. It is easy to work with the material, it was originally designed for use in hospitals, where a durable and waterproof material of reusable use was required.

    Features of operation and care

    Polyurethane textiles and artificial leather There are extremely durable, and since they are waterproof, the dirt is easily removed with soap and soft wet sponge. Can be cleaned with mineral alcohols, but rigid chemicals, such as acetone or vinegar, can affect the appearance. According to the care and operation instructions (always check the label on your things), most of the products made of polyurethane tissue can be passed into dry cleaning Place in a washing machine with a conventional washing powder. thermoregulation.

    Unlike the remaining polyurethane materials, Gore-Tex has breathable pores that need to be regularly cleaned with special compositions so that the dirt and sweat do not interfere

    About Polyurethane fabric, see the following video.

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