Polyamide was invented more than 150 years ago in the USA. He began to be used in industry from the thirties of the last century. The material is characterized by excellent technical characteristics: thermosetics, durable, not subject to corrosion. Nowadays, actively applies in various sectors of the national economy.
What it is?
Polyamide is a synthetic that is made from petrochemistry products. It is made from the compounds that are in their composition AMID CONH. Polyamide is well opposed to high temperatures, in its composition there is a group of amides, which can be duplicated in a large molecule of 8-10 times. The material is characterized by an increased stiffness ratio, which makes it very strong. The component density can be modified in the range of 1,0101-1.233 t / m3. Polyamide substances have gained wide popularity, they have excellent resistance to aggressive substances, can withstand considerable terms of operation.
Polyamide is not deformed, not even in the conditions of arctic cold weather and does not melt, staying for a long time under the influence of sunlight.
Features of the composition
Fiberglass material has one of the best TTX on such criteria:
- High temperatures resistance.
Polyamide can withstand temperatures up to 145 ° C without losing its TTX. This was the reason for the active use of the material in the industry (pipelines, dynamic nodes), you can usually meet it where there is a high temperature. And polyamide is perfectly opposed to significant mechanical loads. Polyamide 6 (GOST 1-0589-87) is an exceptionally resistant substance, especially when interacting with aggressive chemical compounds:
- Machine oil+
Of the flaws of polyamide 6, it is possible to name its high absorption indicator of moisture: the material cannot be widely used in environments where the humidity is 100%. It is very important that after drying the material does not lose its TTX.
More denser material is polyamide 66, it has a higher coefficient of stiffness, density, elasticity. It has increased resistant qualities upon contact with aggressive chemical compounds: alkalis, machine oil, fats. Even under the influence of hard gamma radiation, the material does not lose its characteristics. Beautiful TTXs allow the use of polyamide 66 in the production of various parts:
- Machine shock absorbers+
Polyamide 80/20 is actively used in casting, it makes blanks from it. As well as elements from this composition often can be found in electrical products. Polyamide 12 is used to produce pipes for utilities. Material has exceptional wear resistance. Often polyamide 12 apply in the working nodes of aircraft and helicopters. It does not lose its TTX even when working in a high temperature environment (over 60 ° C).
Polyamide 6 / 66-3 enters the composition of adhesive compounds, as well as films. This material is actively used in the production of genuine paper. Polyamide 11 is another functional material that has a high moisture absorption coefficient (0.93%) and has an increased service life. The material does not highlight toxins when contacting food, is actively used in industry:
In contrast to other materials, it has a high cost. Polyamide-46 has a unique crystal structure, the melting coefficient of this material is record high: about 300 ° C, therefore used in areas where elevated temperature modes are poured. Lack of polyamide-46 – poorly tolerates high humidity.
Pros and cons
Polyamide fiber advantages:
- withstands weight up to 1.6 kg+
- Low specific weight+
- Colors are not flexible from ultraviolet exposure+
- It has water-repellent properties+
- not afraid of high temperatures+
- does not deteriorate from the effects of alkalis and acids+
- he does not harm fungus+
- It does not burn, has a high melting point.
Products made of polyamide group synthetics have the following positive qualities:
- do not imagine+
- Easy is erased+
- do not fade and do not linger+
- Provide a good air exchange+
- Protect from wind.
- accumulate static electricity+
- It has too high thermal conductivity+
- Aggressive connections quickly penetrate the core of the fiber+
- Some polyamides interact poorly with moisture.
Although polyamide is not natural, it is not harmful to health.
Types and their characteristics
There are many types of fabrics woven from polyamide threads. Code name of polyamide in administrative documents of manufacturers -.
Polyamide tissues differ in composition and have names:
- Capron RA6+
- Nylon ra6.7+
- Polyamide RA12.
Polyamide fabrics are advantageously distinguished by such qualities:
- wear resistance+
- High density+
- low price.
Polyamide is often used in the production of other tissues. For example, it is added to elastane and viscose. On many labels in the description of the composition of magicians, trousers, sweaters can find the word “polyamide”. Polyamide additive to natural tissues allows things to quickly dry, be elastic and wear-resistant. A dense warm sweater or a jacket may contain polyamide additives in its threads. Fabrics can have a different smoothness coefficient: polyamide products can be smooth as silk, can be rough and have different textures.
Polyamide prices differ significantly. Capron has a price of 265 rubles per 1 kg, polyamide – 420 rubles per 1 kg. Polyamide brand “6” has a price of 620 rubles.
Capron is made of polyamide 6. The material is not exposed to alcohols and concentrated alkalis, has increased strength. Capron fibers are plastic and durable, not affected by ultraviolet rays. Capron is used in textile production, many clothing items are made of this material. Often it is used in the furniture industry to create upholstery. Parachutes are made of this light durable material. The material also successfully replaces non-ferrous metals, the price of which is extremely high. Low weight and wear resistance allow you to use this material in the production of machine, trams and trolleybuses.
Anid is made from adipic acid, which, in turn, is obtained from benzene. According to the technical indicators, Anid is very reminded by Kapron.
The fabric is produced in three types:
- Filament Nights+
Anid is distinguished by the fact that the melting point of the material is a little more (+ 226 ° C). Code products can be processed at temperatures of about 145 ° C. In Japan, this fiber marks niplon, in America called Nylon 66.
Fabric is widely used for the manufacture of knitted products and shirts. Also made from Anida fur and sewing threads. Material in demand, every year sales of anise grow.
Nylon is the first synthetic fabric based on polyamide, which appeared in the States at the beginning of the thirties of the last century. Nylon glorified synthetic fabrics. The material became incredibly popular in the fifties of the last century. Women’s underwear cost inexpensively, it was wearing, easy, durable and pleasant to the touch. Men’s shirts and jackets also looked presented and profitably emphasized the figure. Nylon got widespread in Russia, received the name “Synthetic”.
Nylon is produced from carboxylic composition with adding alcohol and water. It has labeling “6.6 “. Externally nylon looks like silk.
Matter has such properties:
- does not break, withstanding large mechanical loads+
- does not learn when washing or exposed to ultraviolet+
- does not absorb dust and dirt+
- The fabric is not deformed with time+
- quickly dries.
However, nylon is badly passed by air, which is why allergic reactions often occur. And in production, the fabric is treated with toxic substances that practically do not destroy from the surface of the products for a long time.
Nowadays, fashionable combinations of artificial and natural materials. Polyamide fibers are present in male and women’s clothing, the amount of them reaches, as a rule, one third of the composition. Nylon is added to silk and flax, making them more wear-resistant and elastic. Women practically immediately took into service this material, made from the nylon:
Nylon learned to reinformen, which gave the opportunity to create practical upper clothes. From the cordura (type of nylon) with the help of reinforcement make backpacks and bags. Nylon is used for excellent housing textiles:
The only flaw them: accumulate static electricity, which is a magnet for shallow dust. Wash nylon is recommended at a temperature of no more than + 32 ° C. Products can withstand a large amount of washes. Upholstery is done with the addition of nylon to 35%, the material was called Flock. In addition to nylon, polyester is also present in it.
Taslan is a denser of nylon, has increased strength, clothes from Taslan “Blue”. Structure of weave fibers Rep
- Sports products+
- Tourist equipment.
Good turns from Taslan down jackets and winter jackets. From the inside, the Taslan is covered with special impregnations, which provide reliable air exchange, at the same time the cloth reliably holds heat. Easy Taslan beats all records: 1 m2, weighs only 182 g. The repusate interlacing fibers forms a special rutter, which is easily distinguished by the Taslan from other materials. Top dressing sews from Taslan Nylon. Its feature is that various fibers that have their markings are used.
- 186T – lightweight material from thin threads.
- 310T – the material of their pretty thick threads. From it make a coat. Threads can be intertwined in parallel and form squares. If there is an inscription on the label Rip-Stop or R / S, this means that there are additives in the fabric – additional fibers.
Taslan is also differentiated by fabric impregnation.
- Milky is a special white-colored layer that is applied to the inner side. Coating task: hold the insulation inside the product and protect against high humidity. Impregnation can be completely transparent.
- PU is a polyurethane layer designation. To the touch material resembles the skin. PU 3100 marking indicates that the fabric has an increased water resistance.
- WR – This marking indicates the presence of a layer that causes moisture drops to roll from the material, not penetrating inside.
Jordan (Jordan, Jonardan) – innovative tissue of the XXI century, which is overflowing under the influence of light. Microporweets of synthetic fibers are covered with a special layer of polyurethane, which adds strength. Matter Easy and has excellent waterproof properties. The fabric effectively protects against moisture and at the same time provides reliable air exchange. Jordan Pu Milky WR uses especially in great demand. Such material has a well-scratched surface with anti-view texture. PU and BO impregnations give the material additional functionality. Jordan’s density – 222 g / m2. The fabric does not miss even a very strong cold wind, so it makes it:
- Sports Suits for climbers.
Clothes can be mounted repeatedly, it does not lose its qualities.
- Soft and easy+
- Well protects+
- serves long+
- Pleasant to touch+
- quickly dries.
Wellsoft (Wellsoft) is another synthetic fabric that has gained widespread. The second name of the material – Ripped Mahra. Material has a pile located on two fabric sides, it is based on polyester. The fabric is created from ultra-thin fibers with a thickness of 0.07 mm (thinner of the hair 100 times). One thread contains up to 24 fibers. Due to such a unique structure, the tissue has a high strength and low weight coefficient. The fabric is processed by special chemicals, which gives it strength and softness. “Wellsoft” is very functional:
- quickly dries+
- does not miss cold air+
- Practically does not mind.
There are several varieties, the fabric differs according to the criteria:
- Availability of drawing+
- Structure of thread.
Wellsoft can be called one of the best terry fabrics, which is ideal for sewing various clothes. The lack of material is that he has not a very good air exchange. Especially good from the “Veltsoft” Plaids, bathrobes, children’s costumes. Pile of fabric resistant to temperatures and moisture levels. Over time, the pile does not wipe, it retains the length. Ironing such a fabric is optional. She does not lens.
The tactful has a complex double structure and has a lot of positive qualities. Perfectly passes air (one of the best materials for this indicator). The tactful is actively used in light industry, in particular, in the production of stockings and socks. The tactus was invented by the largest chemical corporation Dupont (Dupont, USA) in 1983. Translated from Latin Language as “Touch”.
The fabric is made from a special artificial fiber, which is based on polyamide-6.6. Fibers are distinguished by an extraordinary subtlety: only 7.9 microns, in one thread can be fifty such fibers. The number of fibers is directly proportional to the softness and strength of the fabric. Thicker threads are on the inside of the fabric, thinner – on the outside. Nowadays there are several tens of tissues under the TACTEL® brand. Most of the fabric are made of top and clothing.
The fabric can be:
The tactaker is distinguished by ease and strength. Provides a good air exchange and keeps warm. From the disadvantages you can call a high price.
Tactel-Micro is used in knitting. Tactel®-Textural has in its composition heavy thick thread, tight fabric and elastic simultaneously. Ideal for sewing sportswear. Tactel® Diablo refracts the rays of light, why the material glows and sparkles. Usually from “Diablo” make women’s underwear. TACTEL-AQUATOR has two layers. The first consists of polyamide, the second layer – cotton. With high humidity, synthetic fabric removes excess moisture. Especially often tactel-aquator applies in sportswear. Tactel Strata has different thickens of the thread, they are painted in different halftones, which is why the thing becomes overflowing color. Often, the “tuct” is added to various fabrics:
The material was widely distributed on all continents, in the press it was called “Cotton XXI century”.
Where are applied?
It is important to note that polyamides are not subject to strain and do not change their TTX throughout the service life, so the material of them has found the widest application in many industries, as well as construction. Most often polyamide can be found. Artificial materials are manufactured from polyamides:
Many casual things are made of polyamide:
- Stockings and socks+
- artificial fur+
- Elements of children’s clothing.
Using this material is made:
- Technical fabrics+
- Technical shoes+
- Tape conveyors.
This material does not come into contact with food products, therefore, in the food industry, polyamide is actively used to create:
- Food containers+
- Liquid tanks+
- Tanks for packing cheese and dairy products.
In medicine, it can be found in such products:
- Surgical Nights.
Synthetic fabric products are leyable both manual and machine washing. The optimal temperature is not higher than 42 ° C. It is also possible to iron synthetic things, only if the iron temperature is not exceeded 95 °.
Synthetic fabrics are afraid of chlorine compounds in any form, so it is possible to remove stains allowless to use any solvents.
About how to produce a synthetic thread, look in the following video.