People and animals depicted more primitive artists. The need for reconstructing itself, people and animal heroes is always relevant for naive art – it is born in the people and is expressed by different forms. Draw, sculpt, embroider, vyat, finally cut out of a tree: a person in the process of his artistic development evolved in the choice of funds, forms, technologies. An example of such a folk art that has become exemplary – Bogorodskaya thread.
The abundance of forests in Russia has become a key to the fact that the wooden toy existed here many centuries. Supplementary, warm tree developed a fantasy of masters, succumbed to their creative experiments, and the whole directions appeared in the thread.
Traditional Bogorodskaya Toy – these figures of people, animals and birds made from an unpainted linden. Depicted cutters and large compositions from peasant life.
The main “scene” of fishery is a man and a bear, she, without exaggeration, made recognizable to the Bogorodskaya tree thread. But there is another feature toy: its parts are mobile, and in action they are driven by a slight spring movement. At first, the Bogorodskaya carving was considered typical peasant fishery, but since the second half of the XIX century, whole sculptural groups appeared in production. These plot productions were presented in realistic images of the surrounding world, people and animals, fabulous heroes.
History of origin
At the end of the XVI century The village of Bogorodskaya became belonging to the Trinity-Sergiev Monastery, the peasants of the village from that time were monastic serfs. And their merit is that such a craft appeared: at the time and the Bogorodskaya tree carving was laid.
Trinity monastery combined the best artisans, icon painters, carvers on wood and bones near himself.
Therefore, to call a Bogorodsk toy only with peasant craft, primitive and equal with many others, will be wrong. Even the royal children played with such crafts.
Sergiev Posad considered the capital of the Russian toy, in general, the fishery was developed in many surrounding villages. But The most prominent became the village of Bogorodskoye, and his name was perpetuated by a distinctive craft. Who was the first rapid, kindly unknown.
According to the same data, it was Sergiy Radonezh himself, on the other – the usual resident of Sergiyev Posad, who sold a doll from the Lipovka Churakka to the merchant that he traded from the Lavra. It is believed that the dolls began to make a woman, a resident of the village of Bogorodskoye, and cut toys, she solely for fun for his own children.
Anyway, toys got to the merchants, and from there – for sale, where they were noticed by the people. In the middle of the XIX century, the fishing from the city has moved to the village.
Carving was considered a male business, because it required a lot of physical strength and endurance.
But the whole family worked on the final product: the eldest sons were preparing the material himself, the younger were engaged in squeaking figures, made uncomplicated manipulations. Worked craftsmen sitting, having knees harvesting. Family specialization existed: more than 1-2 kinds of toy family did not do. There were masters “FIGURIES” (cut out of the tree of men), “beasts” and “poultry houses”.
At the beginning of the last century, the artistic direction was experiencing grave times. If briefly, the cheapness of imported goods produced a manual toy from the market. And folk art could perish, but the Savors became the professionals. One of them, Nikolai Bartram, Interested in masts in the thread in the same folk style, however, according to professionals. The toy has acquired naturalistic and significant detail.
Did not cost in the Bogorodsky work and without a politicization period: Such an idea was widespread at that time, all arts had to serve the ideals of the party. The masters tried to escape from the imposed ideals in the direction of fabulous, and after – and historical topics. In the 60s, Artel became a factory of articles. And then there was a big decline: the village of Builders of Gaes substantiated nearby. Root fishery, centuries-old and glorious, died. It was also difficult in the 90s, but the factory, passing the separation and renaming, still survived and functions today. She is everything in the same place, in the village of Bogorodskoe, not far from Sergiev Posada.
Types of wood
Material of the Bogorodskie craftsmen – soft lime wood, alder and aspen are used less. The billet of trees was carried out only in winter, because at this time there is little moisture in the material.
In young trees, wood loose and inappropriate, for cutters only trees were approached by the age of 50-70 years. When the linden is removed from the bark, the tree for another 2-4 years sucked under a special canopy.
Ready for work, the trunk was saw, and the lane rugs were divided into the “Gorbushka” or triangular bars. How the wizard works with the tree:
- The obtained billets Specialist marks on ready-made patterns, making pencil outlines of the template, and the washing is done with a hacksaw, making an ax (for contour marks)+
- Surplus the mass of the tree he removes the eyes, the subtle part of the work performs the little Bogorodsky knife “Shuchka”+
- Linden waste go to the manufacture of small parts either stand for sculptural groups.
Every Bogorodsky master makes the material, each master is trying to see new opportunities in wood artistic processing. Previously, Masters worked at all without sketches, with Mahu, which was the reason for the new term “Maching Thread”.
Beginner cutter, getting into a professional workshop, comes delight from the number of tools. But almost all of them – the case is hiring, and start working with the basic set. And then every master picks up a new tool for itself.
What instruments are needed:
- Knife-jamb – has an elongated blade with a straight cutting edge+
- Cutter for geometric thread – can give the web to the basic shape, and at the same time can cut small parts+
- Bogorodsky knife on the tree “Tatyanka” – can perform the whole cycle of work, from rough processing to the thinnest details+
- Threaded chisels – there are different, straight, corner, semicircular, prisoners, calm+
- Auxiliary Tools – Shutters or Raspille, Top Plan for draft blanks, hacksaw or electric saw, Set of pattern, drill, grinding.
The set can be complemented by individual preferences, but the presented tools – the standard selection of cutters.
Technology and popular motifs
Turning toys and carved assemble from individual details. Smooth details of future sculptures are processed by the skin until their surface becomes velvety. Many toys are covered with varnish today;.
But the classic Bogorodsk Bear remains monophonic, although you can find on sale both the classical execution of carved sculptures and painted figures.
In a sense, it is possible to expect that the fishery will soon see the new wave of popularity: so far the compatriots are still in the mass of their scandinous style, new designers come and offer to replace the Scandinavian decor of the Russian.
Both Bogorodskoy Snowmen, Santa Claus for New Year’s home decoration – a wonderful find. So with the rest of sculptures capable of making the house more cozy and more. Major motives and plots of early creations – Elegant dolls (baryni and hussars), of course, peasants, as well as interesting multifigure compositions, cute carved miniatures.
Later the collection was replenished with ladies, brave riders, lichen dance, soldiers, fishermen, cowrs.
Children love animal compositions with which you can play, and not just admire them. All topics cutters take away from life. Her beauty, and life, and weekdays, and oral folk creativity in fairy tales and giving, and scenes, symbolizing the joyful moments of the life of the Russian man. Humor and realism are quietly combined in these works, in love with the harmoniousness and integrity of the artistic statement.
Some of the most interesting Bogorodian toys – those that move. Button, springs, balance helps a static figure to become dynamic. Even the famous sculptor Roden did not regret compliments for the Bogorodskaya masters, and the toy presented to him carefully kept. And this is true: To create a toy in motion, you need to have more engineering-design thinking.
Bogorodsky fishing – part of a rich folk art. Whether he lives today in archaic forms or moves forward, thanks to new ideas of modern masters, the main thing is that it is alive and the request for the excellent invention of the ancestors is supported.
Excursion for the Bogorodsky Museum of Wooden Toys See in the video.