Herbarium is a traditional decoration that has already been many years. Compositions of dried plants, previously popular among nerds, are now able to decorate almost every home or apartment. Make paintings, bouquets, and albums, and even postcards. To create such beauty, it is necessary not only to have a feeling of taste and fantasy, but also.
What it is?
Translated from Latin Language Herbarium means “grass”. It is a collection of plants dried according to the rules. Depending on their type, it can be both a separate flower or a branch and a whole plant. Initially, herbaria appeared in Italy at the beginning of the XV century. The founder of this type of art was the famous botany of the Pisa Botanical Garden Luke Gini.
To date, it has not been preserved a single copy created by his hands, but some collections of his students still remain.
Almost all exclusive herbariums are registered in international bases. In addition, each plant assigned a special letter code, which consists of six letters of the English alphabet. However, today the plants are dried not only for the sake of science. Most people turn plants gathering, colors and creating compositions in the hobby.
What is necessary?
You can store Herbarium in a special album with files where not only dried plants will be, but also inscriptions about their origin. Albums can be purchased in special stores or make it yourself. To do this, you need to take either very dense sheets of paper, or cardboard and place in files. It’s not worth bonding them. Better to purchase a regular folder-folder. In addition, you can use dried plants as bookmarks in the book or create pictures or panels from them.
As well as some masters use herbaria to decorate boxes or plates, or make cards from colors.
You can make the classification of herbaria in several subgroups.
- Special. Such Herbarium is intended for a specific purpose. For example, a teacher at school can set the creation of a thematic selection of plants based on the material passed.
- Periodic. Most often, this distribution is done at the time of year. For example, in the spring you can put the baby’s shoots or color of the cherry, in summer – blooming medicinal or ordinary plants, autumn – multicolored leaves or bunches of Ryabina, and in winter – unusual branches from trees.
- Systematic. Most often, such herbaries are compiled on the basis of plants already collected. But they are placed in alphabetical order or by type. That is, everything is gradually systematized.
- Thematic. Such Herbarium consists of certain specimens. Separately, healing plants, such as chamomile, mint, sage or wormwood. And may also be selected for the weed collection or cereal.
- Floristic. Such Herbarium is collected in a certain place of residence.
- Morphological. In this case, a separate plant is collected in parts. In addition, one and the same plant can be collected in different periods of its growth.
How to collect and dry plants?
To make herbarium, you can collect completely different plants. It can be the leaves from trees, and flowers, different in size, and bumps, and even a moss or a tree bark. Such a variety is suitable for those people who create bulk compositions. However, before proceeding to the collection of plants, it is necessary to get acquainted with the following rules:
- It’s not necessary to go beyond the plants early in the morning, when the dew has not yet dried up or in rainy weather, it is necessary to collect herbarium only in sunny weather + if it recently passed the rain, you need to wait at least 2-3 hours+
- Before collecting, it is necessary to inspect all the plant and make sure that there are no damage or insects that will be able to damage it+
- If there is no need to pull out a plant along with roots, then you need to carefully cut it with a sharp knife or scissors + if it is necessary, then the roots need to be well separated from the ground, as well as rinse+
- no need to collect more plants than you need+
- It is necessary to bypass those specimens that are listed in the Red Book+
- Better, if the collected samples are different sizes, which will make more beautiful compositions + except for this, you need to remember that the plants should be collected during their full disclosure.
In addition, deciding to collect herbarium, it is necessary to take with you such objects as:
- Little shovel for digging+
- Knife or scissors+
- Special paper for drying or simple newspaper+
- Pencil or pen, as well as notepad so that you can write not only, what a plant is, but also the date, place of his collection.
You can put any plant in different ways, each of which has its pros and cons. Whatever escalation is chosen, it is necessary to give a plant to the plant.
Drying in a natural way
In this case, you will not need to use any adaptations. Found plants will be able to dry by themselves in the place where they were placed. In addition, you can make them volumetric, and flat. Using this option, you need to be prepared for the fact that Herbarium can quickly collapse or lose its natural color. In addition, such samples are not too suitable for different crafts, as they simply do not withstand the effects of glue and other similar materials.
Dry herbarium without applying special devices, you need from 1 to 3 weeks. It all depends on the volume of the plant itself.
In addition, after the end of this process, it is necessary to shoot plants only with the help of a tweezers in order not to damage them, because after drying they become very fragile and brittle.
Press for drying
This option is considered basic, because it is more reliable, and the plant will look beautiful at the end. In addition, it will be able to preserve in such a state for many years. You can use two options.
- Unnecessary books. This option is more suitable for lovers and is used for a long time. To begin with, the plant needs to be well dissolved, and then put it on the page of an unnecessary book. From above it is necessary to cover with a sheet of paper, which specialists call the “shirt”, as well as put a piece of necessary information here. Next, the book needs to be carefully closed and put for several books. It is very important that the sample does not change randomly at the same time.
- Herbarian press. Such a device is intended for dried different plants. It consists of two slimmets of the same size. At the edges there are holes in which the hands of the rope. With their help, the text data is fastened. Prepared samples need to lay in “shirts” and then put between the boards. After that, it is necessary to hold the device well. At one time it can be dried to 45-50 collected samples. To speed up the process, you can take the device to the street in the afternoon, and in the evening it will bring.
Important! What option was not used, the “shirt” must be changed daily, because it absorbs all moisture from the plant. If you do not change it in time, it will lose its natural color.
Most often, such a rush method is used to preserve plants in their primary form. Of these, you can make not only paintings, but also bouquets. First you need to take the container in which the plants will be dried. Then gently decompose the samples in the cooked vessel, the upper part down. Next, you need to fall asleep their special means for drying, which is called silica gel.
All plant should be completely covered. After 15 days, you can get a dried plant and use to be destroyed. The second time to use silica gel is not recommended, because it has already absorbed all moisture from dried samples.
In addition, you can try to dry the samples for herbarium with glycerin. To do this, mix glycerin with clean water in proportions 1: 3. ZAtems need to be poured into a prepared in advance capacity. On the plant’s stem, a small incision should be made (up to 5 centimeters) and put gently into the solution from glycerol. You need to handle this solution every millimeter of the sample, so it’s better to do this.
After 2-4 days, you can pull out the sample and put it in a dark place for drying.
With the help of some household appliances, you can quickly put the plants. However, this does not mean that the quality of the samples will be good. Apply such a drying only in the most emerge.
- With iron. Using such an electrical appliance, be sure to make sure that there is no water in the steam compartment. Then it should be heated to average power and only after that you can start the drying process. You need to attach iron to the plant for a few seconds, and then remove and give the same time to cool. Repeat everything as long as the plant does not completely dry.
- In microwave. Having placed flowers or leaves by turning on the electrical appliance at full power, you can literally for 2-3 minutes to dry the plants.
Important! Using any of the selected methods, it is necessary to place the sample in the “shirt” before the drying.
How to make herbarium?
When all the steps of drying are over, you can try to make various crafts with your own hands. There are many ideas of such compositions, as the human imagination does not know the boundaries. However, the choice always remains the man who deals with this.
If this method is selected, all samples must be placed according to certain types. Separately, leaves, flowers, medicinal herbs, trees branches. In addition, if it is planned to use such an album for needlework in the future, it is better to place all samples in colors to make it easier to work with them. You can make such an album yourself, but you can simply go to the store for needlework and buy it. In any case, samples should be located on each sheet separately. In addition, there must be inserts made from tracing.
Attach plants in different ways. For example, if in the future it is planned to use them for registration of some crafts, then glue is needed lightly. For this suitable two-way tape, which will easily cut down from the sample.
If the album is made only for views, then you can glue “tight”.
Such use of herbarium is considered the easiest and easy. With it will be able to cope not only an adult man, but also a child. Or you can make such creation together. To create it, it is necessary to prepare in advance the following materials:
- Tight sheet of paper or cardboard+
- Dried plants+
- Frame – samples can be stored both in glass and without it+
- Sharp scissors.
Next, on a blank paper, you need to apply a picture of the future picture, and then glue all the necessary items. After that, the sheet should be placed in the frame, more correctly, if it is with glass. So the samples will retain their appearance longer, besides this, the composition itself will also look more beautiful. In this way, you can create not only panels, but also pictures in the style of Provence or various applications for their children.
Wreath of herbarium
Wreath on the doors always looks very beautiful. In addition, he immediately attracts glances to him, as if calling to visit. It will be absolutely difficult to make it, you only need to take the following materials:
- a small piece of tight wire+
- Sharp scissors+
- Food film+
- Plant samples+
- Rights in the tone of plants.
To begin with, you need to make a firecat with a hinge for hanging. Meanwhile, all plants need to be distributed over the beams and consolidate them with the help of a food film, cut into pieces of 5 centimeters, to a wreath frame. If the beams with samples will be more voluminous, the more wreath. When the last beam with plant samples is fixed, you can decorate a wreath with ribbons or beads.
If you follow the following storage rules, the Herbarium can be kept for many years and to get also to the next generation:
- Store all dried plants are needed in a dry and fairly ventilated room+
- Each of the samples must be properly+
- For long storage, each of the samples must be treated with special insecticides to secure from attacking various parasites+
- Place of storage should be well protected from sunlight.
Examples in the interior
Now, many complement the design of individual rooms with the compositions of dried plants.
On the wall
Beautifully decorated painting from herbarium is capable not only to supplement the interior of the room, but also to completely transform it. Especially beautiful will look samples of plants taken from botanical gardens.
Provence Living Room
Making the room in such a style, you can decorate the pictures and compositions not only the walls, but all other parts of the room. For example, place vases with dried colors using a freeze drying. In addition, it can be suspended to the ceiling not one, but immediately somewhat dried bouquets. It will not only add unusual in the room, but also fill the aroma of herbs.
It is worth noting that any person can engage in herbarium. After all, it is completely easy. The main thing is to have a desire and be able to fantasize. Only in this case can be obtained as a result not only a simple album with dried plants, but also a beautiful addition in the interior of the room.
About how to properly prepare drummer and put herbarium, look in the video below.