The modern globalized world involves a huge number of interrelations between different peoples and states – without international cooperation in all areas of human activity, we would continue in terms of the level of development.Now you will not surprise anyone knowledge of two or three languages, and there are those who are even more pronounced polyglot.
However, this is all at the conversational level, to solve household problems, and after all, humanity needs people who are able to go deep into foreign languages to study foreign languages. Although representatives of several professions are engaged in such activities, linguists among them play one of the most important roles.
Who is that?
To date, the concept of linguist has the most ordinary people, but it is usually not quite true, inaccurate. In particular, such a specialist is often perceived as a translator or a foreigner teacher. And although the linguist can really make money on these types of activities, in fact the main sphere of its preparation is another. According to the definition, linguist is a linguistic, that is, a person who is a kind of scientist learning the language, its structure, origin, development rules.
Of course, such a specialist perfectly owns the language or languages on which he specializes, but its area of responsibility is a language analysis, and not just a banal translation. The history of the profession goes far deeper than in the past, rather than in those days when linguists began to call linguists. Studying the principles of formation and development of languages, these people stood at the origins of creating practical transcription and translation rules. In the past times, such people could be counted on the fingers even in rather large countries, and today they have become a little more, but still not so much so that each philologist or translator is called a linguist.
Professional profession is such that far from anyone who wishes can at least theoretically succeed in this field of activity. It is necessary to have a number of properties and characteristics, among which the following are imposed:
- Excellent memory that allows you to keep a huge vocabulary and an array of other useful information in my head+
- Good hearing helping to catch phonetics sound subtleties+
- Preferabity and patience – indispensable features for all who are engaged in the development of theoretical science+
- attention, associative thinking and analytical abilities – are designed to help notice not the most obvious patterns+
- The ability to clearly express our own thoughts – allows you to explain the surrounding theories to others, it is unequivocally to convey the collected knowledge to listeners.
What is different from the philologist?
Above, we briefly touched the problem that a clear line between linguist and a philologist is not obvious for the townships, and for many applicants it is a problem, because they also do not always understand who they want to be on which specialty do. Calculate the difference before you dedicate your life to some kind of activity, it is vital, and we are ready to help figure out what linguist differs from philologist.
Let’s begin with that Linguist is a specialty whose name comes from the Latin word “language”. This is a pure language in its pure form – he is interested in language and only, but in all his slightest aspects. Such a person is interesting from a professional point of view the origin of the language and its relationship with related languages, the development of dialects, the formation and current language structure.
Linguist focuses on the language group, individual languages or dialects to the slightest details, the sphere of its scientific interest can also be separately syntax or grammar. The main activities of such a person are to develop the principles of practical translation and teaching languages (both native and foreign), as well as in the design of textbooks and dictionaries.
No matter how strange it, it was none, but Linguist is “techin” in the world of humanitarian specialties.
The word “philologist” translates from Greek as a “lover of the word” and speaks of a broader orientation of a specialist. Such a specialist is usually interested in one specific language, and he studies it not so much in the slightest aspects, as in the latitude of application – so, the philologist is interesting to literary works and cultural reservoirs left by native speakers. Philologist is a humanitarian in its pure form, it perceives the language as part of the identity directly related to history and even sociology.
The perception of the difference between the two professions, if you ask the professionals themselves, may have a subjective color, but in general it would be correct to say that Lingwist is easier to get into the role of philologist than the opposite. The best attitude to the language demonstrates the following example: Linguists are absolutely calmly relate to borrowing foreign words, because they understand that every language regularly passes through interaction with other languages, it is so developing and transformed, and this is exactly what is one of the items of study for linguistics.
As for philologists, for them this is a sore topic – they are always supporters of the preservation of the language in its some kind of literary version or diversity of dialects, while the widespread introduction of foreign vocabulary seems to them on the canons and the destruction of the identity of that, the study of what they devoted all their life.
Pros and cons
Evaluate the profession from the side, not “cooking” in professional circles, it is difficult, because it is very important that the potential professional has a specific idea of both the benefits and the underwater stones of the activity planning to devote his own life. Linguists, like representatives of any other specialty, are faced with the advantages and disadvantages of their work, and it is worth talking about them separately.
That’s what features worth choosing linguistics as your own specialty:
- Establishment – Despite the rapid development of artificial intelligence and various online translators, humanity is very far from being able to do without living linguists, while global civilization is in dire need of interethnic communication+
- variety of available activity – perfectly owning foreign languages, you can apply your knowledge completely differently, taught by students, engaged in synchronous translation or translating books and films, making up textbooks and so on+
- The likelihood of increased salary – Nowadays, many experts work not in their main specialty, but confident owning foreign languages in almost any sphere makes the employee more valuable and in demand+
- opportunity to work in foreign companies – confidently expressing in a foreign language, linguist a priori is not tied to his native country, instead he can work in local branches of foreign companies or move abroad in search of work+
- Perspective Earnings on Freilance – If you do not want to work for one particular boss and stick to a strict chart, you can take transfers on stock exchanges instead, teach students remotely or sell training courses, lead a cognitive blog on language+
- opportunity to communicate with foreigners Allows you to maintain the highest possible outlook, be an interesting interlocutor and the most erudite person+
- no need to wholely learn from scratchAfter a long time after the completion of education – It is only necessary to maintain and smoothly develop the acquired knowledge base, and if necessary, a person who already owns one foreign language will be much easier to learn the second.
All the above properties of the profession can bring to the idea that the work of the linguist is the best in the world, but it is important to understand that difficulties are possible here. INFrom what features of the profession are skepticism from potential linguists:
- High proposal in the labor market – With modern technologies and travel opportunities, more and more people choose the profession of linguist as a relatively light and interesting, creating a huge competition for vacancies+
- High demands of employers – Freedom of movement in the world leads to the fact that the potential bosses are increasingly want to hire not just a graduate specialist, but a person who has a long-term stay in the language environment+
- low salary level at the start – without having the very experience of staying in the language environment, a novice linguist without reputation cannot immediately qualify for the most “delicious” vacancies and is forced to stare in second-rate transfers with minimal salary+
- The need for second higher education for building an impressive career – often not enough to be just a linguist, because the boss wants you to simultaneously be a journalist, political analyst, lawyer, an economist or manager+
- stress – From the linguist often require maximum concentration and willingness to produce the result as quickly as possible, especially if it works on a synchronous translation, and the experience of quality with such a load can be healthy on the psyche+
- Monotilization of work – this is a subjective drawback, but many of the work of the linguist can seem boring+
- Unstable workload – Lingwist orders often come unevenly, periods of excessive workload, alternating with forced downtime, which cannot be used for a full vacation, because it is unknown how long they will last+
- Significant probability of professional inconsistency – Already becoming a professional linguist and being faced to face with the need to seek a job, a young specialist may be understood that it is not adapted to scientific or teaching activities, but also does not know where to look for customers for work by freelancer.
Although linguist is a single specialty, there are numerous directions of scientific interests for such professionals who make them experts in a narrower area. Nothing similar to the generally accepted systematic classification of linguists does not exist, and in many respects, thin specialization depends on what you are interested in and do all my life. So, someone devotes themselves to the whole language group, becoming a novelist, a trycologist, a mongolian, and someone focuses on one particular language as rusists, arabists or the Britons.
You can do the focus not so much in a separate language or group of languages as on a certain linguistic aspect. There are profile semanthists, morphologists and phonetists studying, respectively, semantics, morphology and phonetics of several related languages. There are more specific directions in the study of linguistics, among which formalistics, cognivistry, structuralistics and functionalistics.
Besides, You can classify linguists from the point of view of what kind of narrow-profile translators they could be. For example, no translator of a “common profile” cannot translate mathematical treatises correctly – for this you need a mathematician and linguist in one person. Computer and broader digital linguists are needed in order to make it subject to transfers to the texts of the technical sphere, which is extremely important now for representatives of most professions.
If the linguist in principle does not specialize in translations, but it has a teaching teaching, he may initially position itself as a teacher.
The exact responsibilities of the linguist can differ dramatically depending on the exact place of work and position – we have repeatedly affected the topic of how differently you can build a career after receiving a specialty. Nevertheless, applied linguistics as a specialty suggests that you have to do certain things or at least be prepared for the fact that they will become your daily duties.
To such tasks, we will take the following:
- Develop and design dictionaries – both classic species (international and specific language) and thesaurus+
- Create algorithms and develop automatic translation and text processing techniques+
- Participate in the creation of technologies, allowing the most naturally to translate text from one language to another without the participation of a live translator+
- engage in research activities in the specialty.
As for dotted duties in binding to a certain place of work, sometimes a linguist accounts for the translation written and orally (including synchronously), collect and systematize linguistic information, write instructions for translators and ordinary users using a product or system developed by linguists.
Linguistics – the specialty is quite complicated, and it is not worth confused by a qualified linguist with each person, well-extremely mastered its own and one of foreign languages. WITHFavoric possession of several languages is not enough to consider a linguist, therefore it is impossible to master the profession independently – Moreover, it is not expected to be a particular opportunity to become a linguist if they come after grade 9. If you see a learning name, called college of foreign languages, be prepared for the fact that these are ordinary language courses that do not even make you a translator. There is a similar educational institution in Moscow at the ICAK, but it also produces teachers, and not linguists.
In Russia, in order to become a linguist in the full sense of the word, it is necessary to enter universities. The Faculty, where the preparation of such specialists can be called differently – linguistic (ideally), translation, philological or even simply humanitarian. Be prepared for the fact that not every graduate of faculties with such names is the linguist, and in many provincial universities they do not produce linguists as such, even if the faculty with one of the listed names is presented. Accordingly, specify the opportunity to learn from the linguist in each specific educational institution. If the structure of the educational institution provides for a specialty “Language learning”, then this will be exactly what you need.
According to the current rules, admission to the Russian higher education involves the need to take exams on subjects considered to be. As a rule, it is necessary to pass Russian, some foreign language and social studies.
Nevertheless, relying on the universal formula of these three items should not be – instead you need to contact the university in advance, which is selected for receipt, and clarify which requirements for applicants are put on there.
Where it works?
After the university in front of the linguist, the broadest prospects for finding a job, because it can work on any company or enterprise that have at least the slightest attitude to foreign languages or international contacts. The easiest and most obvious, the nearest option to the house is a school where you can do teaching activities, although more often linguists teach on the Internet, leading a blog or dialing groups remotely.
In addition, potential places of work may be:
- Translation Bureau, as well as media engaged in operational transfer of foreign press and articles from the Internet+
- Universities and institutions requiring high-quality teaching staff+
- International Associations, Associations and Press Centers, requiring advanced consultations to properly formulate their own applications in different languages+
- Hotels, Libraries and Museum Unions.
How much earns?
Linguist’s salary is a rather abstract number, since each such specialist is a kind of piece goods. Open vacancies of this kind with a clear, in advance the obvious set of duties simply does not exist, and it is precisely from the list of tasks to depends how much is ready to pay the boss. Again, many linguists work on freelancing if not constantly, then partially, and everything depends on the rates of a particular specialist and the flow of orders with which it faces, and this is a very non-permanent value.
To give at least a very general idea of the linguist’s salary, we will walk through related professions. A novice translator who is not engaged in synchronous translation and working in a stubborn bureau with popular languages, it is unlikely that it can hardly count on salary than 20-40 thousand rubles per month. The average salary of the school teacher in Russia is 41 thousand rubles. In both cases, it also depends on the region, because it is no secret that in Moscow or St. Petersburg salaries are noticeably higher than in the province.
A good help to enhance the salary may be additional possession of rare languages or adverbs – if you are not limited to them, the surcharge can be 15-20 thousand rubles over salary. Working a linguist in the IT-sphere allows you to earn from 50 thousand rubles and higher, also earn synchronous translators very well.
Working on the Russian branch of a large foreign company, you can significantly go beyond the framework of secondary Russian wages.