Long term memory: what it is and how to develop?

Long term memory: what it is and how to develop?

In the absence of long-term memory, the information would not delay in the structure of the human brain and would disappear every time nothing. In this case, it is impossible to form the skills necessary for life.

What it is?

Definition of the term of long-term memory (DVP) recorded in many dictionaries. In neurophysiology, attention is focused on the ability of all living organisms with the central nervous system, to learning and memorizing the material.

Knowledge is long stored in memory without quantitative and high-quality losses due to neural bonds due to complex biochemical processes in the body.

In psychology, this level of memory is considered The highest mental function that gives the opportunity to accumulate, hold, save and reproduce a huge number of knowledge and skills, acquired for a long time.

The structure of memory consists of touch, short-term and long-term levels. These species differ in mechanisms with which the material is remembered, the volume and duration of information saving. The characteristic of the three-component model of coordinated working blocks is reduced to the initially involved sensory register with the storage of information within 1 second, the departure of the material in a short-term storage for 20-30 seconds and the knowledge of a long time in the archive.

The basis of long-term memory lies 3 Process: Coding, Archiving and Extracting Knowledge. Memory operation begins with memorization, then archiving and updating occurs, that is, the extraction of information from memory by playback. The volume of fiberboard and the duration of storage are endless. It all depends on the method of encoding, systematizing the material and the subject, which perceives and remembers the information.

On the premises of perceived material in the brain structure storage are influenced by 2 factors: activity and meaningfulness. Activity lies in a strong connection of knowledge with certain emotions, the emergence of a conscious goal and motivating the inclusion of storage of information in the process of activity.

Inaction indicators are control in the memorization process, analysis and structuring of the desired knowledge, search and selection of important thoughts, establishing logical links between text parts, repeated repetition.

Long-term memory firmly retains perceived material. It represents A kind of knowledge storage in brain structures. It can be called a reliable archive, in which all information is divided into a plurality of headings and decomposed on the shelves.

The warehouse with the accumulated material has an unlimited container.

The presence of memory indicates a person’s personal integrity. Memory loss leads to personality decay. Violation occurs due to inability to encode and reproduce information.

In addition, memory may be violated due to amnesia. In the first case, regular workouts help. Forecasts in the second situation are impossible to predict. To amnesia can lead stress or injury.

The reasons for disorders of long-term memory can be physiological features: asthenia, damage to the central nervous system and brain, condition after stroke, intelligence disorder, alcohol or narcotic intoxication. The cause of mental disorders are psychological injuries, depression, neurosis, overwork, chronically bad mood, strong emotional and mental loads.

Domestic reasons are usually associated with poor nutrition, lack of sleep, excessive intelligent and physical exertion, lack of regime and incorrect day planning.

The following symptoms are evidence of DVP violation:

  • Difficulties with conscious memorization of poems, dates, examination material+
  • confusion of consciousness, disruption of causal relationships+
  • Reducing the level of health and mental capabilities+
  • the inability to concentrate and focus, inattention+
  • memory losses+
  • Social dezadaption+
  • Forgetfulness in domestic situations+
  • Scattered and confusion.

Long term memory contributes to improving human quality, achieving success in various fields.

A bit of history

The idea of ​​distinction for short-term and long-term retention of information in memory appeared in the XIX century. The mechanism of transferring information from short-term repository into the long-term archive itself was described in the middle of the 20th century and is still subject to dispute among researchers.

In 2011, an interesting discovery was made. Scientists of one of the US medical centers managed to recreate the entire neural chain, which is the basis of the Fiberboard. It turns out that with the duration of the incoming signal for 10 minutes, strong connections are formed, without falling for a long time and capable of persist in the structures of the brain throughout the human life.

Comparison with short-term memory

All components of memory are consistently functioning. Knowledge for long-term storage comes from the information container held by short-term memory (HCP). Two-stage memorization has a certain biological meaning. Random and unnecessary information is cleaned and does not enable storage in Feds.

Inssential information does not overload the brain. The perceived material is emotionally experienced, reconstructed and placed in the storage of brain structures for a long time.

When comparing two types of memory are observed Differences in the duration of storage of material, the strength of its retention and information container. The storage of information in the CCP is carried out within 20-30 seconds, after which some share of the material is lost forever, and the other part of successfully encoded information enters the archive of the Fiberboard, where it is stored from several minutes to many years. OCP encodes information visually or acoustically, DVP – at the semantic level.

The mechanism for the preservation of information at qt is attention, with DVP – progress. The structure of the QCP is characteristic of the absence of associations, the Fiberboard is inherent in associative. Information reproduction errors when the first type of memory occurs due to its displacement and rapid damping. The causes of erroneous playback during long-term memory can serve organic violations, inadequate instructions and interference.


All types of fiberboard are closely related to each other. An autobiographical view can keep the event of his own life for a long time. In some cases, this species correlated with episodic memory when a separate fragment is fixed and sent to the archive of the brain for a long time. Reproductive species makes it possible to remember and reproduce the previously saved object.

Associative memory relies on functional relations between memorable objects.

The combination of hereditary reactions that are transmitted from generation to generation by means of genesto biological, generic, gene memory. Genetic memory is designed to keep information about the ancestors at the unconscious level. It is believed that such information remains for life in a long-term storage of brain structures.

According to the accessibility criterion, the implicit and explicit memory differs.


Unconscious long-term memory level hidden and not aimed by man. Individual does not attach volitional effort and mental stress to memorize. It would seem, Forgotten Forever Information is unexpectedly removed from the archive at the right period of life.

People who typo regular texts on the computer do not remember the order of the keys until you start printing. Fingers know where the keys are. And a person has no conscious access to this knowledge.

Prize implicit memory has a great power. People suffering from amnesia acquired due to contusion, cranial injury or emotional shock, may forget last life. But Motor and professional skills are saved, Because the information did not quit from the implicit part of the memory storage.


This type of memory is associated with consciousness and the desire to purposefully hold and maintain the accumulated experience. So remember the rules, formulas, dates, master foreign languages. Individual, if necessary, extracts knowledge from memory and voiced.

There are 2 types of explicit memory: episodic and semantic.

  • Episodic type associated with memories of a particular individual, his personal life experience gained in a distant or recent past.
  • Semantic (historical) memory associated with the accumulated experience of all mankind. Any theoretical knowledge, rules, mathematical formulas, historical dates and events are directly related to this type of memory.


To identify how much the DVP is developed by the individual, there are various test techniques.

The first technique is based at memorizing words logically unnecessied. Each word must be numbered. Tests receive 2 list with 10 words. Children from 6 to 12 years old are enough 1 list. Words can be recorded on a blackboard or printed on separate sheets. You can read them out loud, not allowing the subject to record them.

Adults List read 2-3 times, children – 4-5 times.

Sample lists of words.

List number 1:

  • Wizard+
  • screen+
  • boat+
  • recipe+
  • ball+
  • wallet+
  • dinner+
  • gold+
  • circus+
  • conscience.

List number 2:

  • lily+
  • ballet+
  • Island+
  • poetry+
  • square+
  • Psychic+
  • air+
  • freedom+
  • sadness+
  • chocolate.

After attentive listening or reading it is necessary to write down the words on paper, preferably in the same order. Then the subjects distract to another activity. After 30 minutes, the words are once again listening or read, then reproduce.

The next day and a week later, the procedure is repeated with one-time read or listening to lists. Results 4 procedures are obtained by the formula: C = C: A X 100, where C – the coefficient of long-term memory, in – the number of properly reproduced words, and – the total number of words.

Indicators in the range of 75-100 indicate a high level of DVP, 50-75 – about the average level, 30-50 – about low level, 1-29 – about very low level.

The second technique is designed to memorize the semantic text. The essence of the technique is similar to the previous method, but text unfortunately do not read. Examples of texts are distributed to each subject. Allocated in the text the main thoughts subsequently must be reproduced.

This technique is used to diagnose long-term memory in adolescents from 13 years old and adults. Test results are obtained by the same formula, differences only in the fact that here is the number of properly reproduced thoughts, and the total number of selection in the text.

Approximate text.

How many people, so many characters. It turns out that the rain can also show their own nests and temperament. What is the rain? These are atmospheric precipitates arising in the clouds and falling on the ground in the form of liquid droplets with an average diameter of 0.5 to 7 mm.

The best in the world is summer warm rain. He resembles a carefree childhood when the whole rustic guys runs barefoot on wet grass. Sometimes shower suddenly collapsed on us. Often it reaches 100 mm / h and is accompanied by storm. We say about such rain: “Pouring like a bucket”. Due to stormy precipitation, our clothes stick to the body. Where to hide from him?

In the cold autumn days there are faded rains. We look out the window and dream of a speedy cessation of this nasty rainy weather. And it happens, a timid rain will sprinkle a few droplets of a person and stops, as if reflects, what to do next. Maybe he fears something or shy? Such rain reminds the trembling feeling of first love. But now fell the last droplet, similar to tear.

How to develop?

Develop memory is necessary throughout life. It is necessary in order to avoid Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson, Peak and Memory failures in old age. The cognitive function of the brain is plastic, so it is well amenable to develop and train.

The volume of the material should be divided into parts, blocks and structuring it.

You can improve memory using various techniques:

  • Aivazovsky method involves the detail of each image+
  • Cicero method makes it possible to decompose all the information in the brain archive on the shelves+
  • Usage by heart lyrics, songs, poems+
  • Associative memorization games+
  • Sleeping Scandinavian and Japanese crosswords+
  • Unlocking logical computer puzzles+
  • Verbral-logical methods, digital code, various associative connections, “places” and “hangers” methods in mnemonics+
  • Training attention and thinking with certain exercises.

To preserve excellent memory, experts recommend lead an active and healthy lifestyle, Properly eat, provide yourself with a full-fledged sleep, is more in the fresh air, to play sports, avoid excessive loads and stressful situations, observe the routine of the day and develop intelligence by reading books, playing chess and other ways.

Read more about the development of memory, you can learn from the video below.

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