In preschool children, memory develops very actively, but sometimes there are problems with memorization. That is why parents and teachers are important to know which types of memory exist how their formation occurs, what kind of memory in preschoolers prevailing and how best to develop visual, auditory and arbitrary memory.
Features of development
Thanks to the developed memory, children accumulate and save information, and subsequently use it in their lives, so the memory can be safely called one of the key mental processes in childhood. At the same time, in different time segments, the development of memory mark their age differences, so preschoolers remember all somewhat differently than children of school age.
Experts note that it is precisely 7 years old that can significantly improve the ability to memorize, which will come in handy during school training and for the formation of a child as a person.
The memory of children of the first year of life is motor and related to reflexes. When the child begins to walk, learn the loved ones and memorize their words, the motor, verbal and figurative types of memory are actively formed, which at the age of 2-4 years are leading. Over time, the kid is developing various memorization mechanisms, its mental functions are improved, resulting in learning abilities.
The memory of preschoolers is characterized by selectivity and is predominantly involuntary, because the kids do not set themselves to remember something.
It is largely based on the hobbies and interests of the child, so one and the same subjects are different children in different ways. At the same time, kids are also quickly captured by what was repeatedly repeated, for example, the road to kindergarten, often talented by mom a fairy tale or a repeatedly viewed cartoon.
There are quite a few classifications of forms and types of memory.
If we consider from the point of view of objects and phenomena that are remembered, the memory happens:
Muscular helps the child develop physically, emotional occurs when experiencing any emotions, verbal develops when binding studied words with properties and signs of items or phenomena, and the figurative causes the formation of certain images.
As already mentioned, the figurative memory for the preschooler is the prevailing view. With her, the kid allocates the most vivid characteristics of the phenomenon or object, losing sight of many other (sometimes more important).
If you take into account the senses used to form images, then the memory is divided into:
Considering whether the memorization happens by chance or a person deliberately tries to remember something, an involuntary and arbitrary memory stands out.
There is also a separate classification by duration, according to which memory happens:
- Short-term, When information is imprinted very quickly, but for a short time+
- Long term, when experience persists for a long time.
Consider some types of preschooler’s memory in more detail.
This type of memory is also called intentional, since it involves the intention to learn or recall certain information. For fixing the phenomena and objects in memory, the child specifically teaches something, making the efforts of will. Arbitrary memorization begins to appear to the 6-7-year age and is one of the most valuable advances in the preschool period.
Note that random memorization allocate several reproduction forms. The simplest is the recognition when the child repeats the familiar subject and immediately recognizes it.
A more complex form can be called a memory, since the object itself may be absent and does not affect the appearance of the image. The most active form is called recall. It is it that represents the greatest value for educational activities.
It is also worth knowing that arbitrary memorization is mechanical and logical.
- Mechanical relies on external connections and represents “jazbing”, and the understanding of the material is often absent. It is used to explore poems, terms, exercise.
- Logical requires an understanding of the meaning of the information being studied – first the material is analyzed and divided into components close to understanding.
With a given variety of memory, the child has no intentional goal to memorize or remember. This means that cases, phenomena or objects are postponed in memory as if by themselves. Such a memory precedes the appearance of arbitrary and very important for the knowledge of the world.
It should be noted that children involuntarily remember not any information. First of all is remembered what they like, as well as what the child is enthusiastic engaged in.
Baby will remember something bright, colorful and unusual, new, attractive, funny, distinguished by unusual tastes and smells.
When forming such a memory information perceived by a child for rumor, resulting in certain images.For training, use poems, fairy tales, sweatshirts, songs. Positive influence is also noted by frequent conversations, for example, if at the end of the day ask the child about the events in kindergarten or the day after watching the cartoon suggest telling the plot or discuss the main character. After reading with the child a fairy tale, for the best memorization it is worth setting a few questions on it, try to draw conclusions from history.
This is one of the types of figurative memory in which To memorize information, an organ of sight is used. For exercises and games, they resort to numerous visual benefits, including bright pictures, squares with dots, color cards.
The child offers something to draw, continue the pattern, place objects, as in the example, find differences in two pictures, determine which toy is superfluous and so on.
This type of memory also develops well with desktop and computer games.
Formation of memory violation
Memory problems in childhood are due to the most different factors. For example, they may indicate underdevelopment or brain injury. In some kids, memory is disturbed due to the suffering disease or intoxication.
Different difficulties lead to certain difficulties. For example, if the child does not receive vitamins and other nutrients with food, often sick of the ARZ, abides in stress due to the tense relationships of parents, conflicts with peers, lacks adult attention.
The combination of such impacts may cause hypomensiones (so called the worsening of the memorization) or amnesia (if individual moments completely fall out of the baby’s memory).
You can identify such problems with a psychologist or neurologist using tests. After the examination, the doctor assigns a correctional program aimed at improving the cognitive functions of the child’s nervous system. Next, the baby is tested again to make sure the effectiveness of the educational classes.
How to develop before school?
For memory training, a variety of exercises and fascinating tasks are used in game form.
It is also important to also create prerequisites for good brain functioning:
- organize full nutrition+
- Provide crumbling oxygen due to long walks on the street (according to the recommendations of doctors – at least 2-3 hours a day)+
- take care of high-quality night sleep.
One of the most effective ways to remember something associations, because to memorize interrelated things or phenomena is easier than not related information.
It takes into account the organization of lessons to improve memory, Offering a child to remember:
- Related elements – phenomena or objects that have interaction in time or space (so remember the order of any action)+
- Similar images – Things or phenomena having something in common+
- Contrast images – what is sharply different.
Develop the memory of preschoolers is suitable with the help of visual materials: a variety of cards, pictures, toys, natural objects and so on. This will increase the volume of memorization and fixation strength.
Good “work” illustrations. With their help, the kids are perfectly reproduced by stories and poems.
However, it is not necessary to be limited only to influence on vision – it is worth using in classes and other feelings, for example, to give the child to feel vegetables and fruits, guess them to taste or smell.
For the development of auditory memory, you can read 10 words to the preschooler, and then check how many of them the child managed to remember.
For successful workouts requires compliance with several conditions:
- The game should affect feelings and emotions, to be interesting for the child+
- Material must be structured, with simple logical connections+
- The child is important to motivate to explore the new+
- Memorization results should be regularly rechecked.
Gargo classes are celebrated greater efficacy: If the game is held in kindergarten, at home with family members or on the street with friends. In such games, a competitive moment is added, which likes most children and stimulates them for better learning information. You can take turns to invent words to a certain letter, call items around, repeat movements for the lead, describe a neighbor, compare two objects and so on.
About what classes can be held with a preschooler on the development of memory and attention, see the following video.