Prohibited professions for women

Prohibited professions for women

Despite the fact that the 20th century has become a substantial age of the formation of a feminist movement that has gained a large number of political rights, there are still prohibited professions for women today. Restrictions in the professional sphere are most often associated with difficult working conditions.

Why there are limitations?

In all cultures of the world, there is a traditional sexual division of labor, which ensures the protection of a woman performing in society the reproductive function of the reproduction of people, from severe conditions when performing certain labor operations. In the 20th century, when women in different countries achieved in the end of the equation of their political rights with men, there were prohibitions for work with difficult working conditions.

Bans appeared in the era of industrialization in Europe, when industrial production became actively developing in cities. The enterprises most often took to the work of men, as they were not only physically stronger, but also far exceeded women in education and in the presence of special craft skills. Most women who traditionally engaged in family did not have the right labor skills and was forced to perform the lowest paid job. At the end of the 19th – early 20th centuries, the movements of the sofezhestok in Europe advocated an increase in female payment and creating more secure working conditions for women.

At the stage of industrialization in many industrial production of the end, the beginning of the 20th centuries there existed a lot of manual hard work:

  • in mines+
  • in metallurgy
  • in the mining and manufacturing industry+
  • in blacksmith shops+
  • in the chemical industry.

The need for the capitalist industry in cheap working arms made owners of enterprises go to attract cheap female strength on unqualified work. At the same time, feminine labor was paid less than male, when performing the same employment operations. European and US suffling began to actively fight for the wage equation and for providing them with political rights, which would not only vote during the elections, but also to receive education and master the men’s professions for which they paid more.

Throughout the 20th century, feminists dismantled in men the right to work with them on equal terms, but despite the success of women in the struggle for the upset of their gender rights, and in the 21st century the professions remained in which they are forbidden to work for a number of objective reasons related to the features of women’s Physiology and anatomy. One of the first countries where women were equalized with men with men when taking a job, became the USSR. In 1918, special articles in the Labor Code were introduced in Soviet Russia, which indicated professions that do not allow the use of female due to health conditions.

At the same time, in all Soviet constitutions there were laws in which the equal right of men and women was approved for labor. Art. The 19th Constitution of the Russian Federation indicates that men and women today have equal rights and opportunities for their implementation when taking work, and in the Labor Code of the Russian Federation there are articles about labor protection, including women’s. They are listed by professions that are forbidden to use women.

The legislators and labor protection in Russia are guided by the fact that the banning woman to work in a number of industries, they care, first of all, the conservation of women’s health and maintain the opportunity to become a mother in the future.

Who can not work in Russia?

In the USSR, a special list of professions in which women cannot be worked out, labor protection was compiled in 1932. In 1972, he lay down the basic documents of the Labor Code in the USSR. In 1978, the list was expanded to 431 professions that were officially recognized as women. This list and after the collapse of the USSR remained virtually unchanged. The list of not female professions in the USSR has been added new, so new, so by 2000 increased to 456 positions.

In the Soviet government, the measures for the ban on the work of women in a number of industries were explained by the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Central Bank Installation, which listed measures aimed at creating appropriate working conditions for women working in different industries. In the list of profession, recognized as dangerous for women in 2000, are divided into 38 groups, which included various specialties and types of work in agriculture, in railway, sea, road transport, in the metallurgical industry, chemical production and a number of other areas of the national economy.

Recently, the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation revised the current list, removing from it a number of professions, which today no longer exists, and removing ban on work for women from a number of specialties:

  • Machine station of railway transport+
  • truck driver+
  • Captain of the Sea or River Ship and T. D.

Representatives of the Ministry of Labor of Russia indicate that the removal of prohibitions from some professions has become possible due to technical progress, automation and robotization of technological cycles and industries. Now women will be able to work in such professions due to the fact that working conditions significantly improved, as a result of which they decreased to a minimum threat to female health.

The new list will come into effect from January 1, 2021. It is harmful to women’s health professions divided by industry. In general, a woman in Russia and today is prohibited to work on certain production cycles in a number of industrial industries:

  • Chemical+
  • Gorno+
  • Metallurgical+
  • Metalworking+
  • When drilling well+
  • in oil and gas produce+
  • in black and non-ferrous metallurgy+
  • in the production of electronics and radio engineering+
  • In the aviation industry+
  • in shipbuilding+
  • on cellulose-paper production+
  • in the cement industry and the production of concrete+
  • in the printing industry.

In each group, there are lists of specialties for which women cannot work due to severe working conditions. The profession was withdrawn from the list, which no longer exists due to the modernization of production cycles in different industries.

Inaccessible professions in different countries

70 years of the existence of the USSR made many foreign countries review safety and working conditions in which women cannot work. According to modern statistics, despite the active actions of feminists in the modern world, in 104 countries there is a ban on professions and a specific type for women. At the same time, new restrictions do not disappear with the development of technical progress, but only adds.

In 2016, World Bank experts submitted information according to which there are more than 150 countries, in whose legislation at least one law, restricting the right of a woman for labor employment. Prohibitions and restrictions are associated not only with religious and cultural traditions, but also with harmful production, on which women can not work.

In China

In the PRC as such a ban on heavy work for women. They are simply forbidden to study a number of industrial and other specialties:

  • Mining engineering+
  • naval and navigator+
  • explosive work and others.

Thanks to this, women initially cannot become potential contenders in those sectors of the economy, where work is associated with increased danger and difficult working conditions.

The only ban on the profession enshrined by law is work in mines where Chinese women cannot settle in accordance with applicable law.

In Pakistan

In this country, where many women are still engaged in low-paid work, there are also restrictions on women’s labor, which is based on women’s health. So, the laws of Pakistan prohibit women cleaners to wash the floor and equipment in workshops during working hours, when machines and machines are used. Cleaning can only be made late in the evening or at night when equipment stopped.

In Madagascar

In this country, which applies to one of the poorest, also there are prohibitions for a number of work for women. So, they are forbidden to work at enterprises engaged in electricity production at night. It is also forbidden to women to participate in the work related to the preparation, sorting and sale of printing products of various types. This is probably due to the fact that the printing of many publications in this country is still carried out by old technologies, which provide for the use of lead.

In Argentina

In this country, Latin America has a number of bangers for women in professions related to high levels of tension. They cannot work in the following professions:

  • machinists on trains+
  • Firemen+
  • in explosive work+
  • In production, where work with flammable substances and corrosion metals is present+
  • in alcohol production+
  • in glass industry+
  • in production cycles where toxic substances are present+
  • loadors+
  • carry out transportation of hot materials.

In many ways, such a prohibitive list reflects the industrial structure of the Argentine economy, in which there is a large number of harmful industries and has not been modernized for a long time.

In France

In this European country, women are forbidden to work in the specialties associated with lifting weights. Existing labor protection laws prohibit employers to use women on work related to lifting of goods more than 25 kg manually and more than 45 kg on lifts. For this reason, in France, women do not work postmanship, couriers or by loaders. In this country, which is considered the homeland of the movement of the soul fusion, a woman is difficult to get a job in a purely male specialty. So, when taking a job as a gardener, a driver or an autosalem, a woman here refuse 22% more often than a man.

In general, you can see that the prohibitions of the profession are connected, above all, with a physiological aspect. Women in nature cannot carry out a number of heavy physical work related to lifting weights. Bans also concern working conditions that negatively affect the future at the reproductive system of the female organism and can lead to infertility.

Cancellation of prohibitions on a number of professions for women, which occurred in Russia, is explained by improving working conditions, to a minimum of reduced risks for women’s health.

Rate the article
( No ratings yet )
Add comments

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: