Cutting spoons: description, volume and types

Cutting spoons: description, volume and types

The first mentions of the spoon as an item for meals were found in ancient manuscripts, which are more than three thousand years. In Europe, this all-famous device for a drinking meal brought from a trip to England Knyaz Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh in 998 of our era. In order to increase culture to the European level, peasants and versators in Russia were tested under the threat of beating the first dishes at the table, and the cutlets, porridge, meat and other food are not hands, but solely with the help of cutlery (spoons, knife or fork).

Peculiarities

Each of us takes a tablespoon in hand, sitting at the table, at least 3 times a day, absolutely without thinking about the origin of this oldest “tool of labor for eating food at the table”. This usual kitchen accessory for the last thousand years has firmly entered our consciousness, Therefore, many, making up a list of essentials for a multi-day tourist campaign, primarily call a tablespoon.

The lack of a feasting tool in the pocket of the backpack, which was discovered by arrival in the cottage, in a tent on the banks of the river or lake, on a privala in the forest or on a yacht in the open sea causes memories of Robinson Cruzo on a desert island. It creates a strong psychological discomfort due to the real perspective to eat fishing ear, porridge with meat or pea soup from a hiking kittel with a cup, mugs, a glass found in the rusty canned cans and other technicians.

Historians, linguists and archaeologists give the following scientific description of this simple fitting for a drinking meal: “Spoon is a cutlery that looks outwardly as a small flat elongated cup (scratch) with a handle attached to it or handle”.

In the explanatory dictionary in. AND. Dalya tablespoon is described as “gun for bread, for food liquids”.

A rather large amount of bulk products or fluids (more than 500 grams) for cooking prescription or for home blanks for the winter is very simple: there is a glass or electronic desktop scales.

A little more difficult to accurately measure a small amount (up to 50 grams) bulk or liquid products. Depending on the consistency of the ingredients, which are included in the recipe, for measuring a small amount of bulk or solid food and liquids (oil, vinegar, syrup, brine) According to the recipe, home cooks use the following girlfriend weights and volumes for different types of products:

  1. Solid foods (butter, margarine, slices) – weighing a piece of sliced ​​slicer on scales+
  2. Bulk products (salt, sugar or other substances) – pinch (amount of substance between three tightly compressed with the right hand), glass, weighing, dining room, dessert or teaspoon+
  3. Liquid products (syrup, brine) – faceted glass, liter can, dining room or teaspoon, drops of droplets.

    Professional cooks use a dining room, dessert and teaspoon when cooking on a recipe, like a girlfriend to measure the amount of bulk and liquid foods, along with a pinch, glass and electronic scales.

    Housewives, professional cooks and cooks, which with their own hands regularly prepare food and preserve mushrooms, fruits, vegetables for the winter, well know a tablespoon, like a girlfriend kitchen device for measuring the weight of individual bulk or liquid ingredients (salts, sugar sand, table vinegar , oils of sunflower or olive, spices and many others) according to the recipe.

    Three varieties of spoons use in European countries for meals. Along with the largest in volume – dining room, during the feast, dessert and teaspoons are used. They are also designed for eating dessert, mousse, jelly, broth, meat and liquid dishes.

    Varieties

    In addition to familiar to everyone since childhood, a regular tablespoon made of stainless steel or alloy MNC (Melchior, Nickel, Zinc), which all people eat liquid and hard food every day, sitting at the table, For the centuries-old history of mankind, quite a lot of varieties of this ancient device were invented and made for other auxiliary purposes:

    1. Dining room – for the first and second hot dishes+
    2. Soup – 3 18/10 stainless steel made of stainless steel, has a rounded shape of a deep scoop and a handle of 18 centimeters long for finger protection from a burn when drinking hot soup+
    3. Tea – with a removable tea brewing pitch+
    4. Musical – to extract sounds from vintage string tools+
    5. Portion – for packaging ice cream in waffle cups+
    6. Bar – with a long handle for cooking cocktail+
    7. Coffee – for dosage of ground natural coffee+
    8. Decorative – varnished-covered with a pattern or ornament+
    9. For spreading on a red and black caviar sandwich+
    10. Silver Silver+
    11. Gold plated, covered with a thin layer of gravity gold+
    12. For making pickled and saline olives for a side disk or cocktail+
    13. For eating boiled boiled and sick of chicken eggs+
    14. Measured – for dosage of ingredients when cooking culinary recipes+
    15. Figured – in the form of a blade with rare figured teeth for cutting and feeding on the table of cake, mousse and pudding+
    16. To prepare alcoholic cocktails of the type of absinthe+
    17. The souvenir, covered with varnish, with a pattern or ornament (no food for meals).

    The most famous varieties of the ancient “gun”, which was invented by a person in the process of evolution, are considered to be several major groups of products.

    From food aluminum (without impurities of mercury and molybdenum hydroxide)

    Nikolai Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky, a famous revolutionary and a philosopher-Utopist, seeing for the first time an aluminum spoon, said the prophetic phrase that the Great Future was destined to this metal.

    Stalinist gears and repression filled prisons in any unnecessary people who are in deep mines, standing on the belt in cold water, pickling and shovel mined aluminum ore (bauxites). From bauxite in electrolysis furnaces, a cheap electrolytic aluminum was paid from which lightweight parts of the machines and mechanisms, as well as spoons, forks and dishes for themselves and for millions of Soviet citizens, the vast majority of which were fed in cheap Soviet canteens. According to statistical data, during 1937 about 10 million aluminum spoons and as many aluminum forks were issued.

    For reference: According to the results of the census in the city of Moscow, 4,137 million lived on January 1, 1939.

    Stainless steel

    Revolutionary technology of oxygen-converter smelting steel from iron ore lowered the cost of steel products. Aluminum forks with curved and twisted in the spiral tooths in the 70s of the last century in Soviet dining rooms replaced steel cutlery with stigm “stainless” on the handle.

    For corrosion resistance and mechanical influences (representatives of the working and peasant intelligentsia, sitting in the dining room, opened with handles of spoons and forks made of stainless steel caps on floor-liter glass bottles with lemonade and beer) in the part of steel, from which spoons and forks were made, a small Number of Melchior, Nickel and Zinc. On a long handle of spoons, knives and forks from “improved” steel, it was possible to consider the oblong stigma with small letters “MNC”.

    Plastic

    In form and sizes copies steel spoon. Made of heat-resistant plastic with additive in plastic bactericidal components. Cannot be used for hot food and beverages (tea, coffee, borsch, soup, ear, Harcho, Azu). Used in restaurants, cafes, bistro and other speeds of fast food as a single tableware.

      Reusable

      Multi-sized steel spoon or heat-resistant plastic every daily uses at home. By hygienic standards, this tool for food must have a number of properties:

      1. Do not react with organic acids+
      2. have a high mechanical flexural strength+
      3. Store the temperature of boiling fat, tea or coffee and processing in the dishwasher+
      4. Resistance to the effects of organic acid, alkali, synthetic detergents+
      5. No excretion of harmful substances (phenol, toluene, benzene) when contacting food.

      Reusable spoon should also have a low cost.

      Disposable

      It has a simple primitive design, made from thin thermoplastic. Low price does not provide for sanitary processing in the dishwasher and reuse. One-time spoon can not be used for hot coffee or tea.

      At high temperatures (about 100 ° C), thermoplastic can highlight toxic phenol and acetaldehyde to hot liquid.

      Capacity

      Capacity of the tablespoon (in contrast to the glass) is determined by the country where it is produced. The spoon of the European sample dining room (20 gram) contains up to 18 ml (milliliters) of the fluid (the amount of liquid in the spoon depends on the density), 30 grams of small kitchen salt, 25 grams of sugar-sand, about 12 grams of dry bakery yeast.

      Important information: Canadian or American tablespoon contain 15 grams of shallow salt. A spoon of 20 grams made in Australia contains 20 grams of salts “Extra”.

      The necessary proportions of products and their number in each recipe are indicated in grams or in the amount of tablespoons. It is more convenient to use a home cooking as a measure of a 100 gram wine glass or a tablespoon due to the fact that the tablespoon and wine glass is almost always at hand, in contrast to accurate electronic scales with a small dimension range.

      Based on the situation, many “homemade cooking” use the weight table of bulk products in 1 tablespoon and measure the required number with tablespoons with top or without top. Extract from the table for the main types of products is given below. The numerator indicates the weight of the product in the gamma in one tablespoon without top, in the denominator – with top.

      Mass of products in one tablespoon:

      1. Wheat flour of top grade – 20/30 g+
      2. Sugar sand of the first or top grade – 20/25+
      3. Powder Sugar – 22/28 g+
      4. Salt “Extra” (small) – 22/28 g+
      5. Stone Salt – 25/30 g+
      6. Soda Food (sodium bicarbonate) – 22/28 g+
      7. Rice polished – 15/18 g+
      8. Hammer coffee – 15/20 g+
      9. Honey liquid – 25/30 g+
      10. Gelatin granulated – 10/15 g+
      11. Dry bakery yeast – 8/11 g+
      12. Cocoa powder – 20/25 g+
      13. Hammer Cinnamon – 15/20 g+
      14. citric acid (crystalline) – 12/16 g+
      15. Spring water – 18 g+
      16. Vinegar 9% – 16 g+
      17. Whole milk – 18 g+
      18. Vegetable oil – 16 g+
      19. Margarine Follen – 15g.

      Difference from other types of spoons

        Modern tablespoons for food intake are paid from the MNC alloy (nezilber – copper-nickel-zinc alloy). The thickness of the silver spraying of products from the MNC is 24 microns. Alloy composition:

        1. Ni (Nickel) – 15%+
        2. Zn (zinc) – 20%+
        3. CU (copper) – up to 100%.

          From other types (tea, dessert, large and small) tablespoon of classic shape is characterized by dimensions and capacity. The empirical (experienced) path was obtained the dependence between the tea, dining room and a dessert spoon from the MNC alloy for pure tap water:

          1. thin-walled glass 200 ml – 16 tablespoons (in 1 tablespoon 12.5 ml of water)+
          2. A glass of thin-walled 200 ml – 20 dessert spoons (in 1 dessert spoon, 10 ml of water)+
          3. thin-walled 200 ml cup – 40 teaspoons (in 1 teaspoon 5 ml of water).

          For other liquid food products (vegetable oil, oil olive, vinegar, sugar syrup), depending on the density of the liquid, the capacity of the tablespoon in milliliters (ml) can differ significantly from the above.

          Capacity of a tablespoon of aluminum in a length of 192 mm is 10 ml of water (25% less than steel), own spoon weight – 32 grams.

          According to sanitary standards Silver 875 ° samples and its alloys (Melchior) can be used for the manufacture of native and food storage products without coating from the amalgam zinc, nickel or gold. Cutlery from 925 ° samples (technical silver) is mandatory coated with a thin layer of gold, chromium, nickel or zinc to prevent oxidation in air and the formation of water-soluble compounds as a result of a chemical reaction with acid, which is contained in food products.

          Storage and care

          To prevent darmentation (oxidation) of the surface of spoons, knives and forks from table silver or melchior The following simple rules must be followed:

          1. Cutlery and dishes from cutle silver or MNC Store in tightly closing bins with velvet upholstery to protect silver from sweating+
          2. In each box with cutlery, put the packaging of silica gel to absorb moisture, or wrap it with aluminum foil objects+
          3. Fucking products need to be smeared with a thin layer of toothpaste or a mixture of a tooth powder with alcohol and polish the soft wool or flannel cloth+
          4. When removing darkened places, it is impossible to use pex, emery skirt or abrasive paste – it can break the finest exterior coating and lead to a large number of silver salts in food+
          5. A fully darkened object can be cleaned of surface oxidation with a mixture of a tooth powder and salt with the addition of ammonia alcohol+
          6. To preserve the brilliance of a spoon, forks and knives from table silver, it is necessary to regularly wipe the soft wool or flannel cloth, and after using cutlery, it is necessary to wash away from the residues of food and wipe with a soft cloth.

          An old way of purification of products from silver and its alloys is also deserved with a dental powder and a woolen or flannel napkin. A small amount of dry dental powder is poured onto the napkin and neatly without push wipe silver cutlery. After restoring the lost brilliance, cutlery was washed with tap water and wipe the napkin dry.

          Attention! It is strictly forbidden to use for cleaning products from silver and its alloys chalk, plaster, alabaster, powder abrasives. For polishing the scratched surface, it will take expensive polishing paste and a special washer from felt.

          About how to clean the cutlery from silver, see the following video.

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