- Materials manufacturing
- Steel plugs containing chrome
- Steel appliances with chrome and nickel in composition.
- Chromonichel with silver spraying
- Gold plated
- Varieties as appointment
- For fish
- For asparagus beans
- TRANSIBLE, OR COVAR
- For seafood and oysters
- For fondue
- For Spaghetti
- For pizza
- How to choose?
This cutlery begins its history in the XV century. Initially, he had 2 teeth, was flat and very uncomfortable in use. However, over time, the device was modified until the view of the modern fork.
The duration of operation, the appearance and strength of the forks depends on the materials from which they are made, as well as from the selected production technology. In most cases, stainless steel is used as the basis, as the top layer – chrome. The more dense the chrome layer will be, the higher the resistance of the device to corrosion.
Another “chassis” material – steel with the addition of nickel. In premium devices, silver, gold are used as the top layer.
Consider the most popular options.
By themselves, steel cutlery cannot exist, they will be unstable to corrosion. In this regard, steel forks can be produced in the following modifications.
Steel plugs containing chrome
The material usually has steel, iron and carbon, as well as small (13-17%) chromium. It is made of steel 18c, sometimes it is labeled as 18/0. Such steel refers to the class AISI 430 and is considered budget. As a rule, these devices say that they are from the “stainless steel”.
Chrome products can be found in the noble metal gloss, which significantly increases the aesthetic attractiveness of the instruments. In addition to attractiveness, chrome appliances are resistant to corrosion, do not absorb odors and colors. Due to its high magnetic properties, such plugs are widely used in catering institutions. This is due to the fact thatThe equipment for washing dishes with magnetic systems is widespread in them.
Steel appliances with chrome and nickel in composition.
Material includes Steel, carbon, iron, no more than 18% chromium and 8.5-10% nickel. This composition is considered one of the highest quality, Chromonichel steel is assigned to a brand 18/10, also labeled by AISI 304. Chromonicel devices, thanks to special processing, have a pleasant creamy shade. Due to the chromium in the composition of the fork, they have increased anti-corrosion properties, while nickel provides increased resistance to the acids to acids (including concentrated).
Chromonichel with silver spraying
The devices are a chromonicel analog that silver is applied into one layer. The latter passes a special cleaning, after which the strengthening elements add to this composition. Sets with silver spraying are often accompanied by the inscription “90-gram silver”. It means that 90 g of silver applied to the set of 12 devices. Such products are resistant to corrosion, they can be washed into a “dishwasher”.
There are 2 types: from silver 800 samples and 925 samples. The first contain 800 parts of silver and 200 g of another metal. Forks of 925 samples have 925 parts of silver and only 75 parts of a different metal. The sample is necessarily indicated on their surface, and there is a symbol of the crown.
Clean silver devices usually act as gift, decorative. For everyday use, they approach little – too heavy, subject to corrosion.
These are already well-known steel or stainless steel products, covered with the finest layer of gold. Gold spraying is so thin that is measured in microns (1 microns – 0.001 mm). Gilding can cover the entire device or only a certain part.
These forks are well known in the Soviet table. They were very fragile – it was easy to be rushed, to pick up the teeth meat or another dense piece of food was almost impossible. The disadvantages should also be attributed. No wonder that Aluminum devices today practically disappeared from everyday life and sales.
Melchioric forks include luxury instruments. Material is an alloy of copper, nickel and manganese. Such products look very elegant, noble, resistant to corrosion, but their production is quite expensive. Since the 50s of the last century, Melchior is increasingly replaced with nezilber. In appearance, the instruments are almost indistinguishable, but the production process in the latter case is somewhat simplified.
Nelziber is an alloy of copper, nickel and zinc. The surface of such products is necessarily covered by a layer of gold or silver or is crying.
Plastic fork in most cases – the faithful “satellite” of picnics and routines in nature. Such devices can be disposable (only such should be used in fast food cafes, fast food sales points and other public places) and reusable (usually more durable can wash in warm water and used several times).
Wooden spoons and forks today, rather, decorative elements of the interior, rather than practical cutlery. Explanation of this – the briefness of the products, their ability to absorb moisture, fats, smells. Such instruments are very difficult to clean, in connection with the life of their life very small. If the wooden plug is covered with varnish, it is impossible to talk with confidence about its safety, if not covered – the question of the product hygienicness.
It is worth noting that quite often manufacturers produce forks from combined materials. It can be products from a stainless steel or chromonicel in combination with wooden or plastic handles. Melchive appliances are often complemented by gold or silver spraying.
Varieties as appointment
Depending on the purpose, the following varieties are distinguished.
Is a device with four teeth. Purpose – Eating second dishes, because dining plugs are most often served with a table knife. In this case, the knife is taken into the right hand, the plug – in the left. You can cut off a piece of meat by sticking the last in the food and cutting off a piece with a knife. If the fork eats the second, then it is keen to the teeth up as a spoon. I “sit” food, if necessary, helping yourself with a knife.
The size of the dining plug is usually comparable to the dimensions of the supplied plate. On the table, the device is put on the left, if the table is served at once with several forks, then the dining will be the largest and lie closer than others to the plate.
This device is somewhat less than a dining analog, has 3 and 4 teeth, they are shorter toothing dining plug. Sometimes the teeth are located pairwise and in the middle are separated by a shallow recess. Fish device is served with a special fish knife. The latter can replace another fish fork.
A second fork or a knife piece of fish is pressed against a plate, while the other is separated by small pieces. After this part of the fish is eaten, it is turned over and in the same way “crack” with the second party. Ideally, after meals on a plate, there should be only a fish skeleton.
According to the rules of modern etiquette, either 2 fish forks, or a fork and a special spatula. The knife for fish is customary to serve only to herring.
Designed for consumption of cold snacks, omelets, pancakes with filling, fried bacon. Externally is a copy of the dining device, but much smaller sizes.
If several forks are put near the plate at once, the snack bar is third after dining and fish.
Designed for salads, has 4 teeth and a broader base. It is more deposited on the manner of spoons. Usually served with a special salad knife. Used just like dining. Large pieces are punished on the plug, if necessary, cut the knife into smaller pieces.
If you are finely cut salad, the plug turn over the teeth up and burn it into it like a spoon.
Differs in the smallest size, has 2 or 3 shortened teeth. For fruits always served two-time options. Cakes, pies and small pastries require various types of dessert forks, in some cases a dessert knife is served. On the buffets for desserts, a special device with a pointed clologist is served. It is used as a knife, while on the rest of the cloves heating pieces. Fryshot plug is a necessary necessity, since it is impossible to use a knife on a buff.
However, if there is an opportunity to put a plate on the table, it should be refused from a buffet fork using a dessert analogue and knife instead.
For asparagus beans
Used to shift a dish from a common plate into its. Is a device from a single piece of metal, which is then divided into 2 teeth, representing the letter U.
Has large sizes than dining. And in addition, the cutting device is more elongated. Used to cut a common piece of meat on plates or pieces. Meat rises on the fork and is cut by a special cutting knife.
TRANSIBLE, OR COVAR
The device with two horns and a long handle that is used mainly in the kitchen for cooking – flip pieces, check availability, cut a big piece into smaller. Such a fork is convenient to get meat from the broth and cut it. In this case, a large transignery fork is useful, between the handle and the teeth of which there is a folding focus.
This plug is distinguished by the presence of 5 teeth and a broader base. This allows you to convey sprats to the mouth without loss of wholeness and aesthetic form of fish.
For seafood and oysters
Represents a slightly elongated device with 3 teeth, left slightly longer than the rest. They are comfortable to eat seafood, as well as open oyster sinks and get the mollusks. I can also eat mussels, cocktails. The plug is served with a coffee spoon, which is accepted by a cocktail of seafood.
For lobster table is served for a fork with 2 bent teeth. Sizes for seafood for seafood small. But a fork for cancers has a more elongated shape and a long handle. This is a device with 2 teeth. The device for crabs may be the same.
Small (less dessert) fork with 2 cloth for grabbing olive. A similar design has a fork for lemon, but it is larger in size than olive.
The device that is served to Zhulien has 3 teeth, while the side is somewhat diluted aside. The fork itself is small, in size is comparable to a dessert spoon.
Device with 2 teeth on a long handle.
The invention of Japanese specialists, designed specifically for convenient eating spaghetti and noodles. It is a toothed device with an additional shorter coast for capturing food and jazbinn on the surface to hold pasta.
The device “3 in 1”, combining fork, spoon and knife. Invented in the 40s in Austria, first called splaud. To date, the only company in the world is produced and produced in Austria.
Another similar multifunctional device – SPORK. Represents at the same time a fork and knife. Invented and patented in the United States at the end of the XIX century. Only in the 20th century the device received the specified name. Such instruments are convenient in travel conditions and hiking. Folding fork, as well as a knife for canned food – from the same “company”.
Appeared recently, only in 2007, device. Combines a round knife for pizza and a dining plug.
It is right to note that only 4 types of forks are most often involved in the setting of the diversity – dining, salad, fish and dessert. Typically, the meal begins with the supply of salads, snacks. They serve a set of salad forks and knives. In addition to salads, they can be used for snacks (not sandwiches, they are torn by hand), chores, various meat cuts.
Then, when feeding the hot, the set of instruments is replaced by the fork and the knife for the second. If the fish is hot, then the table is available to fish appliances.
At the end of the meal serves baking, desserts and fruits to which special appliances are also put on the table.
How to choose?
Before buying instruments it is worth paying for the material from which they are made. Another factor – metal thickness. High-quality product has a thickness of a metal part of at least 2.5 mm. The standard is considered the thickness of 1.4 to 4 mm.
Rate shine forks – grayish or white. If the absence of shine is not provided for product design, this indicates a low quality of steel either in the absence of at least some polishing of instruments.
One of the most time-consuming production processes – the processing of the fork teeth, so the unscrupulous vendors sometimes make them like chopped. The quality product should not be like an overly sharp teeth.
The following selection criterion – the features of the flexors. In this place there should be a thicker layer of metal so that the plug does not bend, if it is stronger than the usual. The depth of the high-quality instrument should be at least 7-10 mm. Flat products are a Chinese stamping that is inconvenient to use.
It is important to carefully touch the surface of the product – it should be smooth, without roughness and jar, uniform, not to have spots and divorces. Only in this case can we talk about the accuracy of processing. In high-quality devices, only the edges of the teeth can be sharp.
When buying combined instruments, inspect the location of the connection of different materials – there is no joints and displacements. Forks should be tightly “sit” in plastic or wooden handles. If the latter are made of plastic, it must be heat and moisture resistant.
If you are looking for appliances for everyday use at an affordable price, give preference for stainless steel forks. This is the optimal balance of quality and cost. The choice should be done in favor of all-metal options.
Separately, it is worth saying about disposable plastic forks. The main selection criteria are safety and heat resistance (within the limits of the material of the material, of course). Understand how harmless plastic can be marked. Without concerns, you can buy forks on which the following.
- RE (PE), That is polyethylene.
- PETF (PET) or RET (PET) – Indication on polyethylene terephthalate.
- PS (PS) or digit “6” – polystyrene. Fork (or any plastic disposable dishes) is suitable only for cold dishes. There are hot food and the more warm up the dishes in the microwave can not.
- PP (PP, Number 5) – polypropylene. Suitable for hot dishes, withstands heating up to 100 degrees. Invalid contacting polypropylene with alcohol, otherwise toxins are distinguished from such contact.
If you are planning to wash the forks in the dishwasher, make sure that the requirements for the operation of cutlery correspond to the technical features of “dishwashers”.
After visual inspection, sniff the devices. They should not be smell. But the pronounced aroma of machinery, metal – a significant reason to give up the purchase. Finally, Certificate and hygienic conclusion should be asked to the seller. The name of the instrument brand, their manufacturer and its address in these documents should coincide with those data that are indicated on the packaging of forks
As a rule, forks are sold complete with other necessary for serving, devices (spoons, knives). Sets are 6 and 12 persons. The first includes 24 items – on 6 canteens and teaspoons, 6 forks and knives.
A set of 12 individuals includes the same instruments, but already for 12 people, as well as spoons for jam and sauce, for sugar, forks and knives for fish and salad – only 72 subjects.
In addition, there are options that are included only forks and knives, as well as different types of forks and blades / knives to them.
How to use cutlery correctly, see the following video.