Cichlids are characterized by a rather aggressive character, but extremely beautiful, bright coloring and spectacular appearance with more than compensate for this deficiency. Probably, so these fish have won popularity among the aquarists of the whole world.
Features of the family
Cikhlids belong to the numerous cichl family. They are so diverse that not all kinds of these fish are described. Female individuals are characterized by smaller sizes than males. The form and length of the fishe body depends on the view, as well as color options. The body length of representatives of the family can vary from 2 to 100 cm.
The duration of the life of the cichlid on average reaches 10 years, although under the appropriate conditions and care is quite capable of living to 20 years.
Cychlides are found in the reservoirs and rivers of Africa, South America, Asia and belong mainly to endemic species. African cichlids are divided into two types:
- Mbuna – Feeding vegetable food+
- Utaka – predatory varieties.
Cichlids are distinguished by an extremely aggressive character, both to representatives of other species and to relatives. Males are jealously protect their territory and help females to grow offspring. Aquarium cichlids are quite capable of remembering the face of the owner. When it approaches it, they swim to the glass, they can even take food from hand.
Most of the representatives of Cikhlid are on the African continent. The main habitats of these fish are one of the largest lakes in the world – Malawi, Tanganyik, Victoria, as well as other less well-known, except lake species, there are river. Appearance of African Cichlid is very diverse.
Most have an elongated, slightly flap. Fins in men’s men’s long, with sharp edges, and in women – more rounded.
Some species have a headset on the head or somewhat elongated mouth.
Most of the species have a spectacular, bright color, which helps to distinguish between relatives among representatives of other species.
- Pelvikomis Pulcher or Cichlid Parrot It has an elongated, slightly shrouded body of yellow-brown color with a scarlet spot on belly and small bright points on fins. In the excited state or during spawning, the color becomes more saturated. Parrots grow relatively small, males – about 10 cm, and females – up to 7 cm. Average life expectancy about 5 years. Differs in a rather peaceful character.
- Chemichromis Golden – inhabitant of water bodies and rivers in the west of Africa. The body of the fish extended and flattened on the sides, head with a high forehead and thick lips. Color yellow-green, bellyer yellowish or weak red tone. On the sides and on the gills there are 5 dark specks. During the spawning, the color of the fish becomes a golden tone, and the abdomen – scarlet. On average, up to 10 years old, the maximum length becomes 15 cm.
- Chemichromis red the description is similar to the previous representative of Cikhlid, but differs in the color. Fish has a bright red body with numerous dots of a bluish tone, they are even on fins. The males stand out a little big size, and as they grow up, they appear on the head. Women’s individuals have a lighter color and fewer spots. On average, up to 10 cm.
- Haplochromis Vasilkova – The inhabitant of Lake Malawi. It differs in unusual blue. The bottom fin at the fish has a yellowish color, the dorsal – differs in length, and on it, as on the tail, there are several small yellow specks. Adults are achieved 20 cm, and both males and females.
- Haplochromis Filander Because of the rather scattered habitats has several color options. The largest representatives (about 11 cm) have a yellowish-green coloring with a golden chip, but the back and sides have a light blue tint, the body is covered with blurred stripes, passing into spots in the tail. Fishes with smaller sizes (8 cm) are distinguished by yellowish-olive color (males) and clay and yellow colors (females). Folders have small greenish points, and the male near the anal fin is the spot of bright red tone.
The males of the smallest representatives of the Filand from Southeast Africa (up to 8 cm) have the same color as their medium-sized relatives, only with a pronounced blue tint, females are also similar.
- Frontose – The inhabitant of the sandy bottom of Tangani. The body of the fish is long, with shredded sides and high back, characteristic growth appears on the head of adults. The body color of the front can vary from grayish-white to gray-blue, on the sides there are six transverse strips of different dark tone width. This kind of fish is phlegmatic character and inactivity.
- Trophy Star is highlighted by the body slightly elongated shape, arcuate. The main color is black and blue, on the sides between the fins – the abdominal and the beginning of the dorsal – is located across yellow, quite wide strip. Fin tone fins with black and blue edges and pale yellow colors. Can grow up to 12 cm.
- Pseudotrofius Pindani It has an elongated body of soft blue color, sometimes with a light purple sweat. Finns have dark blue rays. On the anal fins of males are several yellow spots. Men’s individuals have large sizes than women’s, but their color is the same.
- Pseudotrofius zebra it is distinguished by an extended, slightly compressed on the sides of the body and fat formation on the head. The view is characterized by an emergency color palette – about 50 color options: White, Blue, Red, Yellow, Orange. Bocames contain 7-9 transverse darker bands.
- Pseudotrofius Lombardo It has yellow-golden or yellow-brown coloring, in some cases, not too clear stripes are noticeable on the sides. Feds are cast a light blue tone, anal decorated with yellow dots, and the dorsal has white bordering. In the length of the fish reach 15 cm.
- Lamprols represented by several species, the characteristic feature, is characteristic of everything – the elongated body, the color is completely different. Lamprol Blue has an extended body of a bluish tone with five black stripes across the sides, the line of the same color is also located on the forehead. Because of its painting, the name of Zebra is five-way. The length of males about 15 cm, females have smaller parameters.
- Lamprol ribbon ribbon May have several colors: blue, brown, yellowish or cream-orange, on the body there are 9 thin silver strips.
- Orange lampologist Differs three variants of the color: orange, golden yellow or black with numerous blond spots.
- Glazing lampologist It has a light brown body on which 3 rows of shiny scales are located in longitudinal order.
- Labidochromis yellow, The lemon or hummingbirds also refers to the dwarf varieties of cichlid. The individuals of both sexes have a yellow color, in the dominant males, it is more rich, and, in addition, their fins are black, the dorsal has yellow. In female fins yellow.
- Leopard Golden has a flat body and high back. The main background is white, the whole body is covered by large spots of olive green and black stripes. The dozen fin is a golden edge, and the tail – yellowish-orange. When the male becomes a hawk, its color changes completely, stains and strips disappear, head and belly acquire a blue shade. The body becomes more yellow with slightly noticeable, blurred small spots.
- Melanochromis Golden Auratus has different options for painting for singular sexes. The males have a brown-black body and a golden back, on the sides parallel 2 blue horizontal strips are located along the whole body. Black and yellow fins or blue, on anal 1-2 light dots.
Golden female coloring with brown stripes. Yellow fins also have brownish lines, and tail decorated with black spots.
- Dolphin Blue It has a rather high, slightly compacted body and a big head with a characteristic convex forehead (in adult males) and thick lips. Young representatives of dolphin are characterized by a gray-blue color with a slight silver flap and strips of dark tone on sides. In adult fish, the colors of fins and body velveti-blue. During the spawning, the bulbs on the forehead of the male acquires yellow.
- Aulalokar Benosha characterized by a strongly flattened body elongated. The forehead and the body of the male – yellow, but the mouth, cheeks and gown – purple, on the sides vertically arranged 7-9 purple strips. The female has a dark brown coloring with 8-9 dark-color strips. The length of the auloulokars grow up to 12 cm.
- Red Cadango It has a large head and mouth that swallows large portions of water with plankton. In different parts of Malawi Lake, a few species of Cadango live, which differ in color. As aquarium fish, representatives of Cadango with a bluish head and yellowish or red body are popular. Some fish have 3 black spots on both sides. Female smaller sizes and mainly grayish tones.
- Minegano – also a dwarf type of cichlid with an elongated body and round head. Along the entire back there is a low fin. Coloring of fish dark blue with two stripes located horizontally and having blue. The edges of the fins and tail are frozen with a loose bluish strip.
Cichlids of South America
This Tsichlid group inhabits the Amazon pool and other rivers in tropical and equatorial areas that fall into the Atlantic Ocean. In addition, many species live in different shallow reservoirs.
Unlike African cichlids, they do not have such an aggressive character and get well with other fish in the aquarium.
- Scalaria Different with a diamond-shaped, compressed structure with long fins, breast – thin, thread-shaped. Coloring can be diverse.
- Oscar – Pretty large fish with reddish brick color and the presence of dark specks. Finns have a rounded shape and dark color.
- Severum Efasciatus It has compressed on the sides of the body of an oval form. Fish color blue or bluish-gray, males for heads have a plot painted in red. The fins of the dorsal and anal stretch along the entire body, the men’s individuals have more extended shape and red color. On the sides are dark transverse stripes. The nature of the fish is quite peaceful.
- Akara blue or blue no particularly large size, adult fish have 13-15 cm long. The color of the representatives of this species may be somewhat different, but everything is characteristic of blue or blue gamma. Has akara characteristic dark spot in the middle of the body and strips in the direction of the eyes. Fins in males pointed, and females – more rounded.
- Turquoise Akara has a color corresponding to the name, on each scaway there is a black point as well as on fins. Males have fins of large sizes than females, and characteristic growth on the back. Fins are decorated with orange crossing. On the body there is also a Typical for all AKAR Dark Spot.
- Cichlida umbrella – dwarf view, fish length only 5-6 cm. Color is blue or yellow-blue, the color of the color is much brighter than in females. Spinal and anal fins elongated. Fish differ in a rather peaceful character.
- Aglassian or Cikhlid Agassice apistogram also relates to small fish (5-7 cm), has a variety of colors, but the main color is made yellow. The long strip passes through the length of the entire body, the fins also have a darker bordering and patterns from the points of the same tone. Males have a brighter palette and elongated fins.
- Chromis-Krasavets It has orange or red coloring with bright bluish dots throughout the body. During spawning, the color becomes much brighter. The males and females do not distinguish between the color, in the length of the fish on average reach 10-15 cm.
- Discuss It is characterized by the presence of several species that differ in the colorful and diverse patterns on the scales. The body of discus, strongly compressed on the sides, has a rounded form. The fins are spinal and anal are symmetrically located, almost along the entire length of the body, but on the chest they are thin and elongated. Fish rather large, about 25 cm long.
- Apistogram Hongslo stands out with a bright color, but the main colors are yellow with red. On the sides there is a longitudinal dark or dark-red strip. The males dominate in size, their length – 6 cm, in the female – up to 4.5 cm. In addition, male individuals differ much more rich color palette.
- Geofagus Presented by several species, they received their names from scientists who described these fish: Geofagus Standharner, Weinmillara, Yurupara, Ipporanga, Pellegrini. The color of fish depends on a certain species, but they have a length, slightly elongated body shape and characteristic growth on the forehead in males. Some species have longitudinal stripes on the sides or point.
- Threaded Akara Has a beige color with blue specks on scales. Anal and abdominal fins – bright, multicolored, and spinal and tail – blue, with several long rays. Females stand out by large sizes, and males – brighter color.
- Cychlid Cupid does not differ in special sizes, reaches 10 cm. Front Orange color, and back, back and fins – blue. Under the eyes are the stains of the turquoise shade, and a large dark – in the back. The individuals of different floors are not very different, but the common color may vary depending on the area of origin.
- Cichlazoma Cedzhika It has a slightly elongated body, slightly flattened from the sides. The males have a gray color with a brownish tint, and the back is darker, and the belly and chest, on the contrary, quite light, on the sides are 7-9 transverse strips. On the head there is a characteristic fatty. Female – gray, with brownish turquoise. Fins have a black kaym, and strips – clearer than the males.
Other aquarium varieties
In addition to American and African cichlids, their hybrids derived among aquarists and their hybrids.
- Flumber Horn with reddish color and dark dots creating fancy patterns on the body. The males have a rather large thief on the forehead, saturated painting and a few long rays on fins. Today there are several types of this fish.
- Red Parrot has a body of a rounded shape with a small mouth, similar to the beak, because of which received such a name.
Coloring can vary from yellow and orange tones to red or scarlet, is also possible solid color or with stain patterns.
In addition, there are also Asian cichlids, they are small, but despite this, are also quite popular.
- Spotted Etherroply characterized by the absence of scales on the gill lids and head. Boca in fish yellowish tones, giving blue tint, back – blue, brown or black, belly – reddish brown. Each scaway has a red tone point, and a black spot is located in the middle of the body. In addition, the sides also include a number of dark specks. Fish length rarely reaches 8 cm.
- Etherroply striped It has the body of the disc-shape of a greenish brown color with darker transverse stripes on the sides and small dots covering the whole body.
In addition to the species described, The cichlov family is represented by many more worthy varieties, with no less beautiful appearance and popularity with aquarists.
How to breed and care for cichlids “Blue Dolphin”, you will learn from the following video.