External filters for aquarium: device, selection and installation

External filters for aquarium: device, selection and installation

The success of breeding aquarium fish largely depends on the quality of the applied equipment. The obligatory attribute of the professional aquarium in our time is an external or internal filter, which is responsible for biological and mechanical purification of water. This article will talk about the right choice of one particular selection device, namely: external (outdoor) filter.

Description and principle of work

External filter (Other Name – Canister) for aquarium – one of the particular productive filtering devices. Through it, it is possible to operate aquariums with a capacity of 40-1500 liters.

From the name it is already clear that The device is placed not inside the aquarium, but beyond its borders – near the bedside table or directly in it. Only the fence and emission tubes are lowered into the water aquarium.

Ceaner filter compartments

Almost always by own fundamentality outer filters – composite. They have several departments:

  • mechanical cleaning compartment, Where is the sponge or a synthetone, which stop dirt particles+
  • Department of Biological Material – microorganisms involved in the processing of organic substances to harmless for the inhabitants of the water environment+
  • Chemical cleaning compartment with hygroscopic material, which may be quartz, activated coal or zeolite.

Based on your needs, you are able to make changes to the basic filling of the external cleaning system.

Device apparatus

The basis of the filtering apparatus is stably the pump leading water located in the system, in activity. Usually pumps are located in the upper area of ​​external filters, and filtering materials for chemical, mechanical and biological cleaning are located in a large tank, called the “flask”, under them.

Multiple tubes are allocated from the flasks (mostly two, in samples for large tanks – 3), conjugate with the tubes of the fence and feed. At the tip of the fence tube there is a preliminary filter, or safety net.

At the tip of the feed tube or the “flute” or a narrow nozzle.

Consider the principle of operation of the outer filtering device.

On the fence tube, the liquid medium from the aquarium across the tube enters the filter, by means of pumps in the reservoir (canister), passes several layers of different cleaning material and again on the hose, already clean, falls back to the aquarium. The structure of the canister cleaning device based on the brand and the manufacturer’s modification is different – the liquid medium can come on top of the book or back.

What differ from the inner?

The difference in external filtering devices from the inner is as follows:

  • The colossal number of filter materials, if compared with internal devices+
  • usually higher than internal filters, bandwidth+
  • As mentioned above, multi-level filtering – in particular, filter fillers include fillers for biological (biofillers), mechanical (sponge) and chemical (zeolite or activated carbon) cleaning+
  • As a result of the above, significantly more subtle water purification+
  • The external apparatus needs attention much less often than the internal device – mostly not more often than 1 time in 2-3 months.

Separate extreme lovers do not produce filter cleaning and 6-12 months, but it is better to look there more.

Experienced aquaries recommend purchasing Exterior filter, Because of the totality of its properties, he is significantly ahead of his inner companion.

What are the fillers?

The canister filter, due to its own structure, makes it possible to form a multistage water purification in the aquarium.

For a mechanical method of cleaning the liquid in the devices practiced Sponges of different density and cells. The fine sponge is capable of stopping the smallest particles of dirt. And also use a synthetic winterizer to purify water from the smallest dirt particles.

For bio filtration there is a huge amount of filtering materials – it is rings, and balls from ceramics, and materials similar to them. Sometimes in handicraft external aggregates in the role of filtering material, clamzit practiced. Usually they possess a porous structure, Their main goal is to provide cleaning microorganisms space for settlement, this requirement is necessary for the effective functioning of the outer filter.

There are also rings from ceramics having a smooth surface without pores, the purpose of such a material is divided by a water stream falling into the device in order to create conditions for optimal, measured propagation over the entire surface of the cleaning material.

Such a substrate is desirable to lay in the first compartment of the device.

Chemical cleaning is carried out by means of such fillers as zeolites, coal activated (active) and synthetic organic ionites. Active coal has a very porous microstructure, due to which it perfectly adsorbs (absorbs) acids, poisonous substances and microelements. For the most part, activated carbon is used in filtering devices after the treatment of fish in the aquarium with a task to derive traces of medicines from the water.

Rating the best models

Consider the most popular filter models for the aquariums of outdoor use.

Filters by 50-100 liters

Tetra Ex600 Plus is designed for small aquariums 60-120 l. One of the most demanded filtering devices in the domestic market. Functively functions (manufacturer’s warranty obligations – 3 years) and almost inadvertently. Each of the five fillers is located in an individual tray. For cleansing, it is instantly disconnected by a specialized adapter.

Drain hoses and tube can be adjusted under different aquariums. The composition has everything necessary for a comfortable and fast installation, including all cleansing materials.

JBL CristalProfi E401 (up to 120 l) – Comfortable and moderately inexpensive Greenline category. Water is cleaned, leisurely passing up through the fillers. The upgraded pump impeller provides absolute sneaky stroke and a long service life (manufacturer guarantees – 4 years). The device is entirely ready for use, equipped with all fillers.

120-300 liters devices

EHEIM 2215 CLASSIC-350 for 120-350 l tanks. Eheim Classic Series Most available from the whole line of EHEIM products. With the apparent simplicity of installation, it carries out high-quality cleaning inherent to all models. Fillers are present in the configuration: substrates, sponges and the like. Warranty period – 2 years.

Tetra Ex800 Plus is suitable for tanks per 100-300 l. Durable and affordable external device, powerful and incredibly silent. Staffed to all appropriate for assembly, installation and starting system.

300 or more liters

JBL CristalProfi E1501 (up to 600 l) – highly productive and moderately inexpensive device category GreenLine. Suitable for aquariums with fresh and sea water. Convenient filler location greatly simplifies maintenance. Equipment is absolutely ready for use, all fillers are included in the kit.

Aquael UNIMAX 500 is used for vessels with a capacity of 250-500 liters. UNIMAX series is Combination of high productivity, large amounts of fillers and competitive value. Bypass system makes it possible to shoot a canister for washing without disconnecting hoses. The device is provided with two inputs and two outputs, which contributes to the uniform cleansing of the entire tank.

Functions extremely quiet. It is possible to supplement the system with an ultraviolet sterilizer (under it is provided for the workplace). Warranty period – 2 years.

Attention! Aeration also performs a very important function enrichment of water in an oxygen aquarium. Aquael APR-150 compressor is ideal for a capacity of 100-150 liters.

How to choose?

Outdoor filter is simply necessary for large aquariums. When buying a model, it is necessary to take into account not only the quality of the device and the tank of the aquarium, but also the practicality of its use.

For many aquarists, the main repulsive reason in the instrument is noise, therefore pay attention to this.

Instructions for choosing includes several nuances.

  1. Of course, the external device is mounted outside the aquarium, because it is necessary to plan space to be planned for it. Before purchasing the first thing you need to know – what power should be from your device. It is directly depending on the tank of the aquarium.
  2. If you have a small aquarium, then advantagely pay attention to the quality and noise indicators, since the requirements for the power of the filtering device are not too large. Explore the manufacturer’s tips in detail, the capacity of your tank should be slightly less recommended standards, a different device may not comprehend with its work. If you have a very populated aquarium, then take into account even how tightly it is inhabited. It happens that the inhabitants have a lot, then you need to buy a filter with a good power reserve.
  3. For aquariums with a small capacity from 30 to 70 liters, the outer filter must have a capacity from 300 to 400 l / h. This should be enough when the aquarium is populated pretty thick.
  4. If you analyze another category of aquariums, the capacity of which is 60-100 liters, the productivity of the device must be higher. Approximately for this category, it equals 500 l / h.
  5. For more voluminous aquariums, performance, of course, should be more. In particular, for capacity from 100 to 200 l approximated it is 700 l / h. The choice of external aggregates is extensive, therefore will not be a problem to choose a modification suitable for you.

How to install?

Mounting features from any manufacturer, but there is a universal method.

  1. Prepare a soft stand and several rags in case of leakage.
  2. Carefully examine the contents of the box: there must be inner sponges, the device itself, fillers, plastic water taps.
  3. Adhere to the practical manual manual in the filter assembly process. The valves on the lid are open at the end of the process. Filler, according to the rules, are stacked in this way: ceramics or Boshara on the lowest, on them – sponges, followed by Singrytegon, Final Upper Plast – Coal or Peat.
  4. Prepare elements for fence and emissions: a long tube with rounding sucks water, short curved – throws out, it is placed in the other end of the aquarium. Calculate the size of the hoses in order to be enough.
  5. Before running the device, fill it with gravity with water from the aquarium (for this purpose, connect the hose for the fence by means of a thread clamp). Water sticks, barely only open the crane. See that water does not flow from another hole. After the device is finally completed – close the hose for the fence.
  6. Connect the emission hose to the device, shout, then fill the water in an unoccupied end and connect to the plastic allure.
  7. Final Action: Unscrew both crawls on the device, and connect the system into the outlet.

If you correctly correctly, it will noticeably like water begins to mix.

Epizodically appear complications – the liquid medium does not run. The problem in the air stopper formed in the filtering device tubes.

You must enable and turn it off several times in a row. If this is not able to help – drain the water and fill the hoses again.

Subtleties of operation

Canister filter works on a specific principle. While useful microorganisms have not settled the filter material, the device functions in essence solely as mechanical. He is polluted with little girl, as a result of which water pressure decreases. But there is also the opposite process.

Dirt is food for microorganisms. They decompose the organic compounds accumulating here and processed into nitrates, in other words, the biological self-purification of the device starts. Comprehensive colonization of the substrate with groups of useful microorganisms is carried out in 2-4 weeks.

And then everything is depending on which of the processes will win – pollution or self-cleaning.

If the first, then the device will continue to clog. Not so stiffely as the first 2 weeks, but inevitably, especially if the water intake is not protected by a preliminary filter.

As soon as the bandwidth of the device drops below 30% of the largest, it is necessary to clean and restart, otherwise it may happen “tipping”. But if all the same self-cleaning takes the top, then the device, on the contrary, is cleared of pollution, and lowered up to 50-70% of the maximum performance is reborn.

In theory after such a filter should function infinitely. In the calibration, productivity is recreated not to the end, and inside the filter there are still congestion. In this regard, if it should be cleaned, even when the fluid pressure is strong.

Most aquarists believe that Since the main purpose of the external filtering device – bio filtration, there is no need to overload this adaptation of the mechanical cleaning.

For this purpose, it is advisable to apply an internal filter to constantly rinse.

Is it possible and whether it is necessary to turn off the external apparatus when feeding fish and in the process of replacing water? No. It is preferable that it functioned constantly.

  • Thus, it will serve longer, since the maximum load on electricity and mechanisms happens during the start period (it is like light bulbs that are most often bravely when the lighting is turned on).
  • There is a danger that the aquarist will distract for anything, will take care of the device back at the end of the event, and that after that a long time is disabled.

Therefore, the water fence must be placed in the lower part of the aquarium, in order to pumped up 25-50% of the volume of the fluid when it is replaced, the device remained working. And under any kind of noise can not be turned off the device for a long time: for the night, for the period of departure, and if a similar reason happened, then it takes to move fillers and restart the device. As previously noted, for a decently contaminated filtering device, sometimes 2-3 hours of inaction can cause damage to the inhabitants of the aquarium.

On how to choose an external filter for aquarium, look next.

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