Dombra is a national musical instrument. What is a Dombura, what is the history of its creation, what legends with it are connected and about many other things, we will talk a little lower.
What it is?
So, let’s start with the story about what is still posing such a musical instrument like Dombura.
Dombour (it is domester) – This is the National Kazakh Popular Plumkown Two-Stand Musical Instrument. However, it is worth noting that Dombra is a folk instrument not only for the Kazakhs. It also has greater importance for Nogai, and for Kalmyk culture.
Dombra devices are quite simple. This tool has a total of 2 strings and consists of 2 main elements that include housing and vulture. For the Millennium, this Kazakh national instrument, of course, has undergone some changes, but, in general, there are no particularly significant differences. It looks around the same way as the Russian Balalaik’s usual.
By the way, Dombra, it falls close to relatives.
The case of this musical instrument is called Shanak. Usually it contributes to the amplification of the domball. Make it with different methods – assembling or cutting down. The second methods relate to the most expensive, painstaking and heavy, since the body is cut from solid wood. The very first method is characterized by its convenience, and therefore it is more sought after. ShanAK is made of pieces of various trees, such as, for example, male or nuts.
Deca, which is also called Cakpack, is responsible for the timbre and rhythm of sound. Its mastered most often from the trees of one breed.
The population of the Kazakh musical instrument has a stand, which is the key corresponding to the Dombra melodies. Specifically, its parameters depends on how high-quality will the sound of the People’s Kazakh musical instrument.
There is also a special spring at the jaber, the length of which varies from 200 to 350 millimeters. Previously, this musical instrument was without a spring, however, with time, noticing that she makes the sound much better, it began to use more and more often, fastening next to the stand.
Of course, one of the most important elements of any string tool is the strings themselves, which are the sound source. It is from them, or rather, from the material from which they are made, it depends on how high-quality the sound of works performed on the house. Strings, as mentioned above, only two. Earlier in their quality Acts of pets (goats or rams).
Such strings that were made from a sheep of two years. These strings contributed to the larger building of the Dombra that for folk music was a big plus.
In addition, the building of the Dombra includes items that are available from her, which disconnect the keys, and the shells that are made from Cle. It is with the help of the thresholds that are located on the vulture depending on the system used, the musician has the ability to change the sound of a journal, pressing the strings to one of these thresholds in a certain place.
In general, it was a brief and generalized description of the Dombra. This musical instrument actually has several varieties. However, we will talk about this slightly lower.
History and legends
Dombra has its own history of occurrence, as well as many legends. Let’s start, perhaps, with history.
There are many evidence that this musical instrument has appeared more than 4 thousand years ago. They are talking about the rock paintings that were found on the MITTOBE Plateau. Detected these images Professor Akitaev with researchers. In ancient figure, a group of dancing men was depicted, in the hands of which there was an object with a multitude of similar to Dombroy. According to archaeologists, this drawing is dated such a period of.
In addition, during the excavations of the ancient Khorezma, the researchers found figures in the form of musicians who played on pinch tools. These musical instruments have a large number of typological similarities with Dombroy Kazakhs. Scientists suggest that it was such a tool that was popular with nomads who lived in the territory of all Kazakhstan.
A musical instrument that reminds something of Dombra, meets on monuments of many different ancient tribes, which inhabited Eurasia space in different periods of time.
Italian merchant and navigator Marco Polo In their notes, wrote that such a musical instrument was among the warriors of turki nomads. According to their traditions, before the battle, they played on it and sang to create an appropriate combat mood.
To our time, many relatively ancient samples of Dombom traditional music are preserved – “Aku” (“Swan”), “NA” (“camel”), “Aksak Kyz” (“Khromaya Girl”), “Aksak Kulana” (“Chrome Kulana” ), “Zarlau” (“Plach”) and many different other. In this music, you can see many echoes of the ancient forms of religion, cults and totem submissions of the people. It has a living history of whole millennia.
Now let’s turn to legends that have a close connection with this musical instrument. There are many, each one is beautiful in its own way, interesting and unique. We will tell about several of the most popular of them.
In this legend, it is narrating that somehow a non-name hero-Bogatyr, very tired of nobility and feats, on the way to his home I decided to take rest. He made a homemade tool made of walnut, made strings from the horse mane and began to take attempts to play on the music instrument himself. However, he did not leave the sound, deciding stubbornly to be silent. For a long time I tried the heroes to make his musical instrument play, but all his attempts could not be called successful. Throwing this thing, he soon plunged into the kingdom of morpheus.
Through time he woke up. His awake contributed to the wonderful melody, which proceeded from his musical instrument. Bogatyr discovered that someone built the threshold from the tree in the area of the head of the head with a neck of the neck. He suggested that it made an evil spirit, which in the people nicknamed no other than the Shaitan. From that time, this upper threshold on the house began to call “Shaitan Tiek”.
“Legend of Dombra and the Son of Cenghis Khan”
Somehow, Juci, who was the son of the famous Khan Genghis Khan, got into the forest along with his servants. He loved her hunt, she was very fascinated by a young man. So, in the process of chase, Dzhuchi’s wild kulans is so funked that he did not notice how much he broke away from his guard. This young man was not equal in terms of accuracy, no animal could hide from him.
However, Juchi’s opponent this time became an angry chrome Kulana, who received his name after one of the battles with Wolf. He wanted to protect his family and for this purpose attacked the young Khan, knocking him from the horse. The young man could not resist, he fell, at the same time damaged his neck, and died almost immediately after that.
The search for young khan lasted a long time, as many as 3 days, the approximate went to the young man around the forest. By tradition, the death of a person should be notified of his close to the beginning of the last 7 days of the commemoration. However, everyone was afraid to tell Ginggishan about the death of Jucie, his most expensive and beloved child, because by the customs of the time, a man who brought bad news was relied.
I had to do it a brave and experienced poet from the people. By building a birch dombru, he collapsed on his knees in front of the throne on which the Great Han Genghis Khan was renounced, and, without wrapped the word, began to play a sad composition, which in the people was called “Kyu”.
The musical instrument gave absolutely everything: and the horses of horse hoofs, and the alarm of the Kulanov. You could submit what happened one only sounding music. Genghis Khan did not say anything for a long time, the coffin silence reigned, which no one was decided to break.
Finally, he began to talk. Genghis Khan understood everything that he wanted to convey the poet of his melody. However, despite this, the poet was not deprived of life. Dombri said him, and therefore Genghis Khan decided to punish her, having ordered her throat her throat.
The order of the Great Khan was performed. From that time on one of the sides of the Dombra, a hole was formed, and the Kazakh people have replenished the list of compositions of another one, which was called “Aksak Kulan” (“Chrome Kulana”).
“The tragic legend about the creation of the Dombra”
There is also a belief related to this musical instrument. At first everything was fine, the girl who was a daughter of Khan, fell in love with a young man. Her feeling was mutual. Already very soon they had to appear first. The real gift of fate was the fact that twins appeared.
For a daughter of Khan for a long time watched the evil sorcerer, who soon stolen the children from the mother and hung them to the top of the sacred tree. They died, and the plant itself soon dried away from their combustible tears.
Young mother, finding that the children disappeared, immediately began to look for them. She almost lost hope, but soon heard the sad singing composition. In the heart she felt that it was calling her kids.
Mother found their remains on the dried tree, precisely from their drying in the wind there was a beautiful melody. So, the woman decided to create a musical instrument in memory of his children, which soon got the name “Dombra”.
“Legend of Brothers-Giant”
There were once in the mountains of Altai two brothers-Giant. One of them, younger, had a wonderful musical instrument called Dombro. The young man loved her very much and often played her. It was he who got almost all attention. His eldest brother was terribly jealous and also wanted fame, and therefore decided to build an extraordinary bridge over the raging river. The younger did not want to take in this participation, then the elder brother was angry with him and struck the Dombru about the rock.
No more wonderful melody played, but on that very rock there was a visible mark. After a large number of years, people found him and began to instill this musical instrument, and again played a beautiful melody in those edges.
Review of species
Now, as promised, let’s turn to the consideration of the species of such a national Kazakh musical instrument, like Dombura. There are only a few of them:
- with hollow griffs.
However, despite the fact that among the listed varieties there is a three-bundled tool, a dumplings, which have only 2 strings – this is the standard of traditional Kazakh dombra.
Note that it is not worth confused by Dombra with such tools like Domra. Tools have not only similar names, but also some external features.
Both tools are beautiful and in general they are very similar in shape. However, Dombra is a big tool, its size can be from 80 to 130 centimeters. In addition, this tool visually significantly already domra. Domra is a smaller tool whose size is about 60 centimeters, it differs significantly to its thickness and width. So, if you look closely, you can easily distinguish the domball from the dom.
Dombri – the favorite musical instrument of the Kazakhs, because he, being in skillful hands, is able to transfer any state of the soul – and joy, and sadness, and longing. The sound of the journal is distinguished by its singer, velvety and rhythmicness, and therefore, confuse the sounds of the Dombra with the sounds of any other tool – the task is quite complicated.
How to setup?
Dombra setting takes not a lot of time and in general is simple. To begin with, the bottom string “Salt” is taking, after which the upper string “RE” is adjusted. For convenience, you can resort to the help of such a tool like a tuner. To do this, you need to fix this device on the domball head and configure the display.
With the correct configuration of the letter G, which corresponds to the lower string, and the letter D corresponding to the top will burn on the tuner with green color.
What songs are performed?
At the weddings of the Kazakhs, a lot of attention was paid to the song of the bride. She usually performed on a farewell rite. When the girl came to her house to his groom, the tradition was sang under the name “Heat-Heat”. Already at the wedding itself, at the very beginning, they performed the “opening of the celebration”, thereby predicting the current of the last rite.
For ritual rituals
Ritual songs were usually sad and fairly guided by mood, and also concluded sorrowful motives, as such compositions were usually performed at the funeral. The most common songs for ritual rituals are “Daans”, “Zhylau”, as well as “Giiirma Dev”.
The most favorite genres of the singers who played at Dom, were popular legends that the epic is. The history of the people is pretty extensive, and therefore songs are quite a lot.
Most of these legends play a huge role in our modern world, as they concern us really happened historical events, which is very important for the whole culture in general.
In addition to ritual, wedding and historical songs, singers loved to perform and works that are devoted to love. Songs with fun with fun, crude mood were in demand.
- Dombra refers to the number of the most ancient tools all over the world.
- The most common decorations of this folk musical instrument were feathers such a bird like Filin.
- Dombra also marked in the Guinness Book of Records. It was listed there after in China almost 11 thousand singers performed the Kazakh “Kenes”.
- Kazakhs are so loved by Dombra that there is even such an expression: “True Kazakh is not myself Kazakh, real Kazakh – Dombura!” (“On the?yz ?Aza? – ?Aza? EMES, NA?yz ?Aza? – Dombyra!”)
- In 2010, an absolutely new tool was created in Kazakhstan, which can be considered a full-fledged Dombra Chad – this is the electrode.
Dombra sound can be estimated by looking at the following video.