The most popular and revered of folk musical instruments among Kyrgyz is currently considered to be. And no wonder his image is present in the national currency of the Kyrgyz Republic – on a banknote dignity in 1 som.
What it is?
Komuz is a rather unique and very ancient string musical instrument of Kyrgyz, belonging to the string-pinch family. It has a pear-shaped case and a long thin neck with a head, on which they are attached to one end in the rods of 3 strings. The second ends of the strings are attached in a stripper installed on the tool housing.
The design of the Komos is deprived of delights and special difficulties: and the body, and the cervix with the head is usually cut down from a solid piece of local wood plant suitable for this purpose (apricot tree, archie, walnut, juniper or urike). In part of the housing, the width of which is about 200 mm, the relief of its final shape hosted the wood to get a hollow space. The top is superimposed and fixed with special adhesive deck, drank from thin wooden material by plywood type. In the deck under the middle string in the center of the case drills through a hole (sometimes several) of a small diameter. As a result, the hollow case acquires acoustic features.
In the neck, too, a small recess is cut into which the grid pad is inserted. A holes for wooden rings are drilled in the head, the grooves for the upper clamp and strings are cut.
The rigus does not have freezing, that is, he is a mandatory, how, for example, violin or cello. However, there are also its advantages.
On the heartless grief, it is possible to get sounds, located in height from each other not only in the standard halftonide, like on piano, accordion, mandoline and guitar, but in 1/4 tones. They can be used, expanding the instrument capabilities.
As the main these sounds, it is unlikely to be used (human rumor to such music is not ready, attempts have already been undertaken), but to decorate normal notes in some cases, it is quite suitable (as foreslags or other melms). The width of the grid is an average of 30 mm, the greatest – 40 mm.
There is a falc – the stand under the string that performs the role of the lower vein. The length of the tool in general is no more than 1 m (mostly 900 mm). Menzura is strictly calculated by the master, as an error even in 2-3 mm will lead to the fact that the juice will not build. Interesting such a fact that the tool has only one melodic string on which the melody play, And the other two are bourdons, that is, they create a monotonous continuous sound background for a melodic line of composition.
History of musical instrument
It is now difficult to determine more or less accurate age of the Komuz, but the first documentary references to the instrument similar to it were made in 2 centuries BC. NS. I.e This musical instrument in Kyrgyz has no less than 22nd centuries, and today it remains popular at the level of professionals and among musicians in household everyday life.
Komuz is a mandatory tool in musical national ensembles engaged in the Kyrgyz folk art, with him are solo professional commizers (Commuses), the original musicians play on the various festive public or family events.
Until now, Commuts are manually made by local masters, And in stores such goods find almost impossible. In some areas of Kyrgyzstan, the appearance and dimensions of the manufactured tools may differ. And in the south of the country, a subsomin is even called otherwise – “Chertmek”, which happened to the words “click”, “knock”. By this name, the tool must some adopts of the game with the right hand: intense and diverse strikes on strings with the right palm or fingers, alternating with various ways to join the strings resembling a lump.
As it sounds?
As noted above, Kouzuz has only 3 strings. Previously, the strings were the veins or intestine of animals, much later they began to do from silk threads. Now for their manufacture mainly use a thick fishing line.
The order of strings of some masters and musicians are underway at the bottom, and others – from top to bottom. True, it does not matter much, since The extreme strings in the traditional settings sounds either the same note, or with an interval of one tone. The second (medium) string in any form of the settings of the extreme string has the sound of “la” small octave. Buronds sound on quart or quint below (“Mi“Either”re»Small Octave).
Music recording is made as an octava above the actual sound of the tool on a new mill in a violin veneer.
Below are the options for standard customization settings:
It should be noted that the most popular among the performers of Kyrgyz music on a communet is the first version of the four given.
The actual sounds of open strings are as follows:
- String No. 1 – “re»Small Octave (no need to forget that the sound record of the sounds of the oxygen on the octave above)+
- String number 2 – “la»Small octave+
- String number 4 – “Mi»Small octave.
The full range of the instrument in this setting is one and a half octaves – from the notes of the “re” small octave to the note “la” the first octave in real sound. This is enough to build major chords in all possible tonsalities.
The timbre variety of a communation may vary depending on the system and features of the game from soft sophisticated chamber sounds to powerful and robust harmonic buildings. The constant presence of the shock background sound of Bourdon, which develops a melodic line of composition, is the main feature of the music of this tool. It is especially acute the harmonic effect of such music on the sense of listeners during the performance of the ensemble of hosts. The sound of one tool is not loud enough – it is designed definitely on a small and quiet audience (for example, at home in a family circle).
Play on a communion traditionally sitting, But the experienced musician will not be difficult to play and stand. Keep the tool follows the grind line either horizontally or at an angle of up to 30 degrees. The left hand performs the roar of the strings in the chords and the finger game of individual sounds, and the right “makes” the strings can sound through the finger tweaks or rhythmic blows on them with all the brush or individual fingers.
In addition, there are techniques of play, famous for other string musical instruments.
For example, possibly:
- Play flags, as on a guitar or mandolin, only touching the strings (and not by clamping them) in certain places of the griff+
- Perform a guitar reception called “Barre” to obtain chords+
- knocking fingers on the body by imitating percussion+
- Implement the following techniques: pizzicato, string, tremolo, vibrato and much more.
In confirmation of these words, you can watch a video in which the professionalism of the participants of the women’s ensemble, which owns the virtuoso receptions of the game on a cuesious and, in addition, seems to be addicted by juggling.