It is difficult to present a more tedious occupation in the life of a pianist’s student than the game of Hamm. At the same time, experienced teachers not only do not exclude these exercises from classes, but also require paying great attention to them. Even experienced pianists with many years of practice dedicate a lot of time on the workout of Gamm. It is worth understanding than useful such classes and how to approach them right.
What it is and why need?
The gamma is called the sequence of sounds in an upstream or downward direction forming a certain tonality. The source is built on a special formula defined by Lad, from a given note. The development of such exercises has several goals.
- Accelerate the development of various tonalities, which in music there are 24 (on paper they are more at the expense of the sound sounds). Arcuring the gamma, the pianist gets used to the number of signs and applications, which makes it easier to memorize artistic plates written in these tonalities.
- Fasten the foundations of musical letters, including knowledge of lads and types of tonality.
- Develop mechanical memory. As a result, a part of the works based on gampely motion will be remembered faster.
- Work out the execution technique, without which the execution of virtuoso concert works is impossible.
The game game is often compared with a warm-up for athletes or ballerinas. Just as the gymnast does not start working out the complex elements of the program with impenetrate muscles, a professional pianist will not switch to the game of plays from the very beginning of classes.
The piano gamma differ in the handbook, structure and method of execution. Depending on musical knowledge and pianist skills, the following types of exercise are available.
- Gamma game directly in octave (distance in 8 notes). Here hands play the same notes up and down. Despite the seeming simplicity of the task, from the musician it takes here to control the quality of the sound, the correctness of the replacement of the fingers on each hand.
- Diverging gamma. This means that the hands move to remove from each other, and then on rapprochement. This exercise is often combined with a gamma in direct movement.
- Gamma in the Terration (distance between notes in 3 steps). If the left hand begins to play with the notes before, then the right starts with mi. Since the hands are in the same Octave, this exercise helps improve coordination in a small space. For convenience, you can move the right hand to octave above. As a result, Gamma will be in Devim.
- Gamma in the session reminds the previous option, but here hands change places.
- The most complex type of gamma is considered to be a tertol doubling. Such an exercise teaches at the same time 2 votes with one hand. When working with it, it is important to achieve smoothness and connectivity of each interval, and without an accurate statement here can not do.
Sounding the game in several ways on piano will help work skills, avoiding monotony of movements and sound.
When a feeling of fatigue after Gamm, specialists recommend switching attention to etudes with similar techniques.
Major called light, joyful way. Such a gamut can be built from any key on the piano. And the choice of the first note will affect the title of the tonality. So, to Major will start with the notes before, and the re major begin to play with the notes of re.
Natural major gamma is built according to the principle: 2 tones – halftone – 3 tones – halftone. In folk music, it is called Ionian.
In addition to her there are other varieties.
- Harmonic major. From the usual range it is distinguished by a low sixth stage (la Flat in to major). It gives him an Eastern flavor. If you additionally lower the second stage, it will turn out twice harmonic way.
- Melodic major. His differences from natural Lada are manifested only when moving down, where 6 and 7 steps are down.
- Major Pentatonic. Floor, devoid of halftone, is characteristic of Asian culture. Unlike European seven-sided analogues, it consists of 5 steps with two intervals at one and a half. So, in a tonality starting with before, there will be no notes of the FI and C. And on the black keys to play a major pentatonic with a type of phase.
- Blues major. It was the basis of Pentatonics with the addition of an additional third stage. So, in the Lada, from the same time, there are MI and Mi-Beleol. As a result, the composer that uses this way can actively use the flicker of the paints of the Major and Minor.
- Lidi Lad, which is executed with a high fourth step. It can be played on the white keys from the type.
- Freigian Lad, characterized by low seventh steps. Corresponds to the speaker from salt, played by white keys.
The mansion is the chromatic gamma, which does not apply to the Major or Minor. It is formed from sounds located strictly by halftons. And in the application is activated only 3 fingers on each hand.
Minor called sad, Dark Lad. The number of minor tonalities corresponds to the major. A pair of tonalities with the same number of signs is called parallel. An example of this becomes to Major and La Minor, which are executed on the white keys.
Natural (or Aeolic) Minor is built by the formula: Tone – halftone – 2 tones – halftone – 2 tones.
Consider his varieties further.
- Harmonic Minor, which is formed by increasing the seventh stage. With a passing increase in the fourth, a double harmonic way is formed.
- Melodic minor, in which, when moving up, 6, 7 steps increase, and in motion down are replaced with natural species.
- Minor pentatonic. The structure of 5 steps without halftone is preserved here. But the gamma is built on the formula, which differs from the major variant: 1.5 tones – tone – tone – 1.5 tons – tone. On the black keys of minor pentathonic convenient to play from the note of re-dyz.
- Blues Minor. Like a major analogue, there is a minor pentatonic with added sound. In La Minor, they become a Mi-bembol, which is used on a par with clean mi. Such an outline is popular for guitar parties in the compositions written in the style of blues, rock and some others.
- Dorian Minor different from the natural gamut of the high sixth step. It is easy to play on the white keys from the note.
- Freigian Lad, Presenting Natural Minor with Low Second. Corresponds to the speaker, built on the white keys from the notic.
One of the exotic and rarely used wards is considered Locarian. Its supporting sounds form a reduced sober, so it does not belong to the Major or Minor.
It is easier to build it from a natural minor gamut, lowered the second and fifth step. On the white keys such a source will turn out from si.
How to play?
The game on the piano requires the right landing regardless of the repertoire. Therefore, performing a gamma, no need to forget about the position of legs, back and arms. In addition, the game of technically complex elements requires the ability to relax correctly. Clamping shoulders and elbows lead to quick fatigue of brushes and fingers, which reduces the quality of classes. And the inability to recognize body signals leads to such a friend for pianist phenomenon, like replaying hands. As a result, work on other works will have to suspend for several hours or days.
To quickly master the gamma, it is worth considering several principles.
- It is necessary to immediately learn the correct formulation of fingers. All substitutions need to be checked and controlled, otherwise it is impossible to achieve the necessary fluency of fingers, and to correct the learned errors will later be more difficult.
- To remember the gamma correctly, you need to first work out each hand separately. When the first stage is absorbed to automatism, you can proceed to the game with two hands.
- First, the work is carried out at a slow pace on the keyboard section in two octaves. At the next stage, you can play faster and 4 octaves.
- When playing Hamm, it is important to achieve an equal power of sound from all fingers. At first it is not easy, because the thumb on physiological parameters is stronger than the Misma. You can hone with the skill by exercise on the table. Slimming handling on piano, you need to hit your fingers over the surface, seeking to achieve the same sound.
- You can diversify the game Hamm using different rhythmic drawings. For example, you can alternate two long notes with two short.
- Gamma also work out with different strokes. These include legato (smoothly), Stakkato (abrupt), Non Legato (separately), Marcato (detach, with an emphasis on each sound).
- Musicians are also recommended in parallel with gamma to work out dynamic shades, including Forte (loud), Piano (quiet), Kressendo (with a gradual increase in volume), Diminuendo (with a gradual sound attenuation).
The development of the GAMM traditionally begins with to Major and La Minora, which are performed on the white keys.
At the next stage, you can proceed to skewers with key signs that start with white keys. These include major dieting and minor bramole gammas. More complex are the skews that begin with black keys.
Applications for beginners
To simplify the designation of the fingers in the notes, they are numbered numbers 1-5. When playing the piano, the numbering begins with a thumb, so index – 2, medium – 3, Unnamed – 4, Mysinets – 5. On tools where only 4 fingers are used for the game (guitar, violin), the index finger becomes the first and so on.
When mastering the application of the GAMM, attention is paid to the replacement of the fingers. For the right hand, when moving up the first one is put first after the third, and then after the fourth. When changing the movement on the final note of the climb, the fifth finger is put. In the opposite direction after the first, the third and fourth fingers are put alternately.
Application of the left hand is built in the opposite sequence. When moving up after the first finger, an alternately third and fourth. And in the reverse movement these fingers are alternately replaced.
To check the correctness of the appliqué, it is important to control the position of the fourth finger. In the dieting gamms, starting with a white key, he always presses the seventh note in his right hand, and the second note in the left.
If the fourth finger press accounted for another key, performed the error to be found and fixed.
In the beromoltone tons, starting with a white key, the fourth finger of the right hand falls on the si bembol. In his left hand, the fourth finger in Fa Majer plays the second note, and in subsequent tonsidities, he presses the key corresponding to the newly appeared bemolo. So, in the Mi Ferol Major, the fourth finger of the left hand will have to be on la, and in the re boar Major – on salt.
A separate part of the exercises on the piano becomes arpeggio. So called chords whose sounds are performed alternately. There are 3 types of arpeggio:
Short arpeggios are a tonic sober with references to the doubled bottom, which are played in turns with gradual ascent and subsequent descent. The broken arpeggio is similar to short, but notes of each individual fragment are played in the following sequence: 1, 3, 2, 4.
Long arpeggio is a chord, played in a single movement up a few octaves followed by return. In this way, you can play major and minor sober, sextakkord, a quarrestakkord, sepkords of different species.
Let us sum up: Gamma is considered an integral part of the piano classes. They are required by novice and experienced musicians, since they contribute to the development of tonsil letters, the development of performing equipment. Gamma differ in Lada, the degree of complexity and method of execution. Play scattering starting with black keys harder than with white.
Therefore, the development of the gamps begins from a simple to complex, from the slow to the rapid, from two octaves to four. It is necessary to train the gamma in direct, divergent, combined movement, in the prison, decima and sext.
And it is important to control the correctness of the landing for the instrument, arms and appliqué.
Experienced teachers will definitely pay attention to the freedom of shoulder and elbow zone, because when it does not have a hand, it is rapidly tired, which reduces the duration of classes and the quality of execution.
Starting every occupation with Ham and Etudides, the musician prepares himself to the perception of artistic works. Well honed technical skills will help him quickly move from the analysis of notes to work on strokes, dynamic shades and character. The result will be the fulfillment that will bring the performer, and will also cause a living response from the listeners.
With some exercises to develop the skills of the game on the piano, you can also get acquainted in the next video.